II 2018

Influence of acidic and alkaline environment on surface degradation of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP )
The aim of the research described in this publication was to investigate the influence of acidic and alkaline environments on the surface degradation of Yttrium-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics (Y-TZP). The measure of degradation (aging) were changes in the amount of monoclinic zirconia phase (m-ZrO2) in the material and bending strength values. Tests samples were prepared from three Y-TZP powders marked as: OLD, CH3 and HT and were subjected to an aging process in the following solutions: 5M H3PO4 (K1), 5M H2SO4 (K2), 5M NaOH (Z) and distilled water (W) at 90°C during 72 hours. The reference samples were these not aged (NS) and as a control – samples aged in distilled water (W). To assess the impact of individual factors, the XRD phase analysis, surface observations in the SEM scanning microscope and bending strength tests were performed. In all aged samples an increase in the amount of monoclinic phase was observed as compared to not aged samples. The results indicate that the highest increase in m-ZrO2 phase occurs after aging in 5M NaOH and the bending strength is not unequivocally correlated neither with the type of aging nor with the increase in the monoclinic phase in the samples.
Adam Kolenda D.D.S, Paulina Tymowicz-Grzyb M.Sc.

Tiles. Their Short History from the Ancient Elam to the 16th Century Antwerp
The paper discusses briefly the history of wall and floor tiles from their very beginning (various objects from e.g. the Elam civilisation, Babylon, China, Rome etc.) till the 16th century Antwerp, where the Italian craftsmen specialising in the art of majolica settled at that time. Special emphasis has been put on the Arabic heritage, most inspirational for the European ceramic tradition.
prof. Piotr Oczko

Synergy in sintered particulate composites
The article describes, on the selected examples, the possibilities of improving the physical properties of sintered polycrystalline materials by producing composites. All technologies of sintering multi-phase powders aiming at obtaining the highest density of the product, lead to obtaining materials that are in a complicated state of internal stresses. At the same time, sintering of multiphase systems proceeds in a way that significantly modifies the microstructural parameters of the final material. Another feature, obvious from the point of view of the definition of a composite, but necessary to emphasize, is the presence of an interface, which can significantly modify the properties of materials. In the work, on the example of real materials from the Al2O3/ZrO2 system, the properties of polycrystalline composites, which can be improved in the composite in a synergistic manner, such as fracture toughness, subcritical crack resistance, resistance to cavitation wear, are indicated.
prof AGH Zbigniew Pędzich Ph.D. Eng.

The use of laminated car glass in the production of foam glass
In the paper the possibilities of using waste from laminated car glass type VSG in the foaming process with the addition of ceramic scrap were assessed. The samples were subjected to the foaming process using experimentally selected optimal temperature parameters. The microstructure of the obtained foam glass was examined. The influence of the ceramic scrap on the process of foam formation was determined.
Anna Zawada Ph.D.