V 2017

Low-temperature degradation of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics. Part 2: Preliminary EBSD study
The results of EBSD (Elektron Backscattered Diffraction) study on the low-temperature degradation (LTD) phenomenon of zirconia materials were presented. The aim of the study was to answer the question whether the EBSD method can be used to identify the initial LTD stages of Y-TZP zirconia. For comparative purposes, previous results on XRD study and SEM observation, published in part 1 of the article, was used. The results of the studies have shown that the sensitivity of EBSD method for detecting early stages of t›m transformation is significantly higher than that of XRD and SEM. Analysis of EBSD diffraction patterns revealed the presence of monoclinic phase in the superfi cial layers of materials despite the fact that the diffraction patterns did not show it.
Paulina Tymowicz-Gzyb M.Sc.

Influence of foaming raw material fi nning on foam glass porosity
The influence degree of grinding of foaming raw material (limestone) on porosity of foam glass was investigated. Materials batches of different degree of grinding limestone and glass cullet (particle size of 0.063 mm) were foamed. The microstructure and the basic physical properties of the resulting foam glass was analyzed. The study allowed to examined the shape and size of pores. The optimal degree of grinding of the foaming raw material has been determined.
Małgorzata Lubas Ph.D. Eng.

At work, in a cafeteria, at home and in a kindergarten. New forms of tableware as an answer to the changing needs, living conditions and dietary habits in the 1950s and 1960s Poland.
The development of modern Polish tableware in the 1950s and 1960s was driven by the Institute of Industrial Design, which was opened back in the 1950s. At the very beginning of the 1950s, a team of designers employed by the Institute started to work on implementing production of dishes that would fi t the post-war reality much better: small apartments and the promoted family model, in which both parents worked and children were sent to nursery or kindergarten. In this model, family members ate outside: in the canteens at work and school or cafeterias. The answer to those needs was the tableware designed in 1953 for the self-service mass caterers. Designs that followed focused on designing for children (Barbara Fribes, 1961) or developing “sanatorium” tableware for people with limited hand mobility (Danuta Duszniak, 1967–1968). The answer to the new way of spending time at home – in front of the TV was the “TV set” designed by Zofia Przybyszewska in 1956 consisting of a cup and an elongated saucer that could also fi t a small snack.
Anna Wiszniewska Ph.D.

Features of ceramic decoration in industrial space of the Former Clinker Works in Nowogrodziec near Bolesławiec (1880–1930)
The article presents the results of documentation works underway at the historical complex of buildings of the former clinker works. They were the basis for entering the site and the unique decorative elements into the register of technological and industrial monuments. The clinker works in Nowogrodziec, built between 1864–1930, are an example of industrial complex in which, apart from purely functional features – the spatial arrangement and the structure of buildings serving technological needs – we also fi nd the ceramic facade ornaments. They are present on administrative and production buildings (pattern shop, mould room, raw materials storage facilities, drying room, furnace rooms, and chimneys). Chronological stratification of the complex made it possible to date the glazes, plaques, ceramic tiles, fi gures and individual ornamental motifs appearing on the building facades. The ornaments serve also as a presentation of ceramic techniques and technology – colourful glazes and masses. Another characteristic feature of these decorations is the rich variety of motifs, compositions and techniques found frequently within a single building. It constitutes a type of an “outdoor” catalogue of architectural elements, details and terracotta sculpture forms manufactured at the works from the beginning of its operation until 1980’s. The efforts to document the complex made it possible to confirm the hypothesis that the ornaments constituted a standard of reference. In addition to the aesthetic value, they have a number of non-essential functions important for industrial culture researchers – normative, technical, technological, analytical functions (state of the facade ceramics), identification and advertising of the plant and the basis for decision making and conservation. The attempt to read the non-ethical values of the decoration presents an elaborate methodological approach to documentation procedures of industrial objects. Apart from their aesthetic value, the ornaments are normative in character, of importance for conservation or preservation decisions made in connection with the planned revitalization of the site.
Ewa Łukaszewicz-Jędrzejewska Ph.D.