VI 2016

Examination of selected metal oxides’ effect on the possibility of modifying the color of purple ceramic paint
Ceramic purple colour consists of Purple of Cassius inorganic pigment and properly chosen flux. The colour is widely used for decoration of porcelain both in painting technique as well as in technique of indirect screen printing (decal). The aim of the carried out tests was to settle infl uence of metal oxides’ admixtures upon possibility of obtaining various shades of purple and violet colour. The following metal oxides were being added to the ceramic purple colour on the base of its leadless fl ux, at various stages of its manufacturing: silver oxide Ag2O, chromium oxide Cr2O3, cupric oxide CuO, indium oxide In2O3, yttrium oxide Y2O3, cobaltic oxide Co3O4 and parameters of colour L*a*b* of the obtained colours were defi ned comparing to the pattern colour, without any admixtures. As the result of the carried out tests it was shown, that performing admixtures of metal oxide at different stages of purple colour’s manufacturing, various shades of purple and violet can be obtained, and during modifi cation of colour the stage of admixtures’ addition is important as well.
Anna Karaś M.Sc. Eng.

Acquiring of red glass using the Purple of Cassius
The paper presents the results of research conducted on glasses coloured with the Purple of Cassius. The synthesis of the dye was carried out based on information contained in the literature from 1917. The lead glass was selected for the survey due to the higher solubility of gold in these glasses. Molten glasses were colorless, and as a result of crystallization the red color was obtained. The intensity and hue depended on the crystallization conditions. The color of glass after crystallization was photographically registered, and spectrophotometric analysis was conducted in order to determine objectively the color changes.
Magdalena Woźniak M.Sc. Eng.

Thermal and thermomechanical properties as selection criteria of refractory materials in glass furnacess
Improving the technology of refractory materials used inmthe construction of glass furnaces associated with the desire to operational reliability of the furnaces. The quality requirements for materials used stem from the complexity of their working conditions, which are characterized by three basic impacts: the dominant infl uence corrosion, thermal stress and mechanical stress. The article presents the conclusions from the periodic review of the application and working of refractory materials in the glass industry, which specify, among others, criteria for selection of these materials. The basic properties such as: composition, density and porosity determine the thermal and thermomechanical properties of the material, among others: thermal conductivity, thermal expansion and shrinkage, refractoriness under load, creep compression under load. It shows a direct correlation of the selected properties of the temperature and mechanical stress. It indicated the importance of thermal and thermo-mechanical properties as the selection criterion and the criterion of evaluation of the materials used. It proposed to examine the work of fracture as an additional criterion which allows to determine the susceptibility of the material to propagate existing microcracks depending on the temperature.
Renata Suwak Ph.D. Eng.

The preliminary results of the production of magnetic marker proppants
Commercial proppants, apart from types of materials used for their production, are designed to fi ll and maintain open fissures in shale deposits arising during hydraulic fracturing. Proppants stabilize deposits at great depths (even 2–3 km) under presence of high pressures (up to 75 MPa). Their basic properties include high resistance to compression, right size, uniformity, sphericity, smoothness of grains and adequate specific weight. While physical properties of proppants depend on technological parameters, their mechanical strength, weight and chemical resistance are related to the quantitative and
qualitative composition of raw materials used for their production. Recent researches are focused on the production of marker proppants, which apart from properties typical for regular proppants, have additional properties allowing to better assess the degree of hydraulic fracturing. Moreover, proppants with an addition of radioisotopes and proppants active in the electro-magnetic fi eld with high conductivity or adequate magnetic properties are being considered in current literature. Proppants with magnetic properties belong to the prospectively most promising types of marker proppants however innovative production process is complex both in the terms of the selection of raw materials and parameters of each process stages. The aim of the works presented in the paper is to develop the conditions for producing magnetic marker proppants by ceramic methods, moreover to determine quality criteria and testing methods.
prof. ICiMB Cecylia Dziubak Ph.D. Eng.