II 2014

The Maya Ceramics of the Classic Period Pictorial Themes and Functions
In the article the Maya ceramics of the Classic period (approximately A.D 250-900) are described. During this time, the craftsmen of that people created some of the most interesting examples of ceramic crafts in pre-Columbian America. The article discusses the issues associated with the production of vessels and their decorating. Considerable attention was also paid to the scenes painted on vessels where many themes concerning Mayan society and beliefs are shown. Also described is the use of ceramic vessels that served both in everyday life and as the grave goods.
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.

Competitiveness of European ceramics industry and energy costs
The ceramics industry belongs to energy intensive industries, one third of production costs are costs of energy. The differences between energy prices in EU and USA, China and Japan were shown and their strong infl uence on competitiveness was stressed. The main targets of EU policies to achive industrial competitiveness and energy effi ciency has been presented. One the base of “Energy prices and costs report” prepared by EC the prices for energy in brick and roof tiles and wall and floor tiles sectors in Europe were compared. The main issues of Cerame Unie statement on 2030 climate and energy package were described.
Jerzy Czechowski Ph.D. Eng

Method of lowering the sintering temperature of the alumina materials containing more than 90% Al2O3
The paper describes work carried out at the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials on lowering the sintering temperature alumina material containing 93 wt% Al2O3, used for the production of ceramic grinding media and wear resistant linings used in ball mills and transmission lines of pneumatic transport systems. The way of conducting work on developing, fixing and testing the sintering temperature properties of the ceramic materials were presented. Obtained properties were compared to samples made of referenced material Al93.
Tadeusz Jakubiuk M.Sc. Eng.

Naliboki and Urzecze, a few words about glassworks owned by the Radziwiłłs
The article presents the history and characteristics of glassworks in Urzecze and Naliboki. Both glassworks were founded by Princess Anna Katarzyna Raddziwił (née Sanguszko). The Naliboki plant operated between 1722 and 1864, and the Urzecze one between 1737 and 1846. Such a long period of activity evidences a proper governance, despite the difficult political situation. The plants were well known from their skilled workers brought from Dresden. The owners paid attention to high quality of products The glass items produced in the Radziwiłłs’ glassworks were known from their artistic values and modern technology. It is important to remember that the large amount of the production was used for owners’ own needs. White and crystal glass was the most popular but the stained glass items were also produced. Glass products were often handed out as gifts but they were also sold with a profit. Products were decorated with Radziwills’ coats of arms and other friendly families symbols too. There were even a series with the monogram of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland. Various themes, such as plant motives, flowers, animals and even fi gural scenes were used as a decoration. Items where glass was cut into various patterns were the most appreciated ones.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.