VI 2015

Studying influence of element Gd3+ on the magneto-optic properties of the tellurite glass 
This paper presents the results of research on the tellurite oxide glasses containing Gd3+ elements addition. The evaluation of the magnetic properties of the investigated materials was based on the determination of the dominant type of magnetic order by measuring the DC magnetic susceptibility. Their magneto-optic properties were determined on the base of the Faraday effect measurements and Verdet constant calculated from the turn angle of the surface light polarization. The results of magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate the change in the nature of magnetic ordering induced by the addition of gadolinium ions. Parent glass Te2 is a typical paramagnetic. The addition of gadolinium ions to the parent glass caused the change in magnetic ordering from paramagnetic to diamagnetic. With the change in the nature of magnetic ordering magneto-optic effect is reduced. An increase amount of point defects and an increase of average volume defect sizes that was observed on the basis of PALS, and a small value of magnetic susceptibility in this case may influence such behavior of the magneto-optic effect. The obtained results can provide important advises on the development of new materials possess unique magneto-optic properties for applications in optoelectronic devices.
Edmund Golis Ph.D.

Kurt Randhahn's artistic pottery workshop in Bolesławiec – a forgotten episode from the Art Nouveau period
Kurt Randhahn, was a lecturer in the Ceramic Vocational School of Bolesławiec, and also managed an artistic pottery in this city between 1899 and 1906. What distinguished it from other works, was the elegant and exclusive assortment of products (vases, jugs, bowls, fi gurative works), decorated with drip glaze, opaque glaze, half-opaque, so-called alabaster glaze, mirrors glaze and modern paint layers. The works were created on the basis of the designs made by Berlin sculptors: Arthur Lewin-Funcke, Konstantin Stark, August Gaul and Carl Stork, as well as artists from Bolesławiec: Ernst Heinecke and Hermann Knauer. Randhahn’s ceramics was highly appraised by critics and won numerous awards, among other things: a honorary diploma on the 1st International Modern Decorative Arts Exhibition in Turin in 1902 and a silver medal on the World Exhibition in Saint Louis in the United States in 1904.
Anna Bober-Tubaj M.Sc.

Test methods for slip resistance of ceramic tiles used in Poland
The article shows how important is slip resistance parameter of ceramic tiles and presents two test methods for this parameter - using a platform with a ramp to specify the maximum inclination angle of the examined surface and determining the dynamic coeffi cient of friction.The paper presents results interpretation of ceramic tiles slip resistance using a platform with a ramp carried out in different laboratories. Based on the analysis of these methods and test results suggest that an objective method of testing slip resistance of ceramic tiles is determination of the dynamic coeffi cient of friction.
Lucyna Badura Ph.D. Eng.

The influence of ecological characteristics of energy sources on environmental burden accompanying fl oat glass manufacture
This paper presents an analysis of a potential impact of electric energy from selected primary energy sources and natural gas from various European countries on environmental burden generated by the fl oat glass production process. In case of the group of European countries taken under consideration the range of values of the cumulated Pt index was relatively wide, from 98.5 Pt/t to 134 Pt/t of glass sheets. Lower burdens were predicted for electric energy generated from renewable primary energy sources and nuclear energy. It has been shown that it is ecologically more
advantageous to satisfy energy needs of the manufacturing process with natural gas than with electric energy.
prof. UTH Ryszard Świetlik Ph. D., Artur Molik Ph.D.

V 2015

Fire resistance of vertical glazed elements  
This paper discusses main problems related to the fire resistance of vertical glazed elements – test methodology and way of classification for this type of elements. In addition, the article presents the conclusions from the tests of fi re resistance of such elements conducted in the last years by the Fire Research Department of Building Research Institute.
Bartłomiej Sędłak M.Sc. Eng., Paweł Sulik Ph.D. Eng.

Developing ceramic paints that would enable creation of multilayer coatings using the CMYK colour model
The project involved developing a series of lead-free fluxes, analysing their thermal expansion coefficient and identyfying their characteristic melting points, chemical resistance and the quality of the fired flux surface. A range of ceramic paints was developed on the basis of the selected flux and pigments. Further research involved analysing colour parameters and chemical resistance. Finally colourful patterns were printed out and assessed with regards to the quality of the surface and the obtained colours and their shades.
Barbara Synowiec M.Sc. Eng.

The renaissance of pressed glass based on the history of Ząbkowice Glassworks
The article presents the history of Ząbkowice Glassworks and the innovatory approach to glass technology presented by Eryka and Jan Drost. What had been concidered vices of pressed glass, they made it's virtues. They created pressed glass products on a massive scale never seen before in Poland. In the 70s pressed glass products – which had been considered glass of lower category – started to compete with hand cut cristals. Thanks to that innovatory approach they took pressed glass to higher level. Pressed glass product recognized both in the country and abroad are belived to have become the icons of Polish design.
Kalina Banka M.Sc.

Application of mercury porosimetry in evaluation of the infl uence of thermal shocks on changes in the texture and pore size distribution of magnesia-chrome refractory materials
The mercury porosimetry method is one of basic measuring techniques for the industry of catalysts, ceramics, active carbons and many others. There is also a wide range of possibilities of using mercury porosimetry in the research fi eld related to refractory ceramics design, production and application. The aim of the article is to present one of possible examples of solving research problems related to the determination of textural changes in magnesia-chrome materials subjected to thermal shocks. Analyses of the pore size distribution of 6 magnesiachrome materials characterised by different shock resistance were performed. The investigations were conducted on single samples subjected to 5 and 10 air thermal shocks and their results were compared to the values obtained for the original samples. It was found that in all the examined samples the median diameter of samples subjected to thermal shocks increased. At the same time changes in the pore size distribution were observed, which can be related to the materials’ resistance to thermal shocks. In the case of materials characterized by enhanced thermal shock resistance the number of 10-30 µm pores was increased, whereas in materials characterized by lower thermal shock resistance the increased number of pores was noted for the pore size of 30-90 µm. From the point of view of the quoted example, porosimetric tests should be considered very useful in the solving of research problems related to the effect of destructive factors on refractory ceramics.
Iwona Kozubek M.Sc Eng., Jacek Brzezicki M.Sc. Eng

IV 2015

Ceramic materials for dental prosthetics – color gradient zirconia blocks   
In the past years there has been an intensive development of cosmetic dentistry. The appropriate selection of artificial crown shade corresponding to the natural teeth color is one of the most important aspects of aesthetic reconstruction of dental crowns. Hence the purpose of the work described was to develop a method for manufacturing zirconia blocks characterized by gradient color change. Colored ready-topress powders in shades of A1, A2, A3 and A3.5 of VITA color scale were used and gradient test samples were formed by pressing. Their physical properties, structure, color and saturation distribution were evaluated. Overall assessment of the usefulness was performed by specialists from prosthetic company. The results of the research and experimental tests have shown that the proposed method allows to obtain zirconia blocks with a color gradient, which can simplify the currently used methods of staining and veneering of prosthetic restorations. It seems possible to replace the time-consuming and diffi cult veneering by only painting techniques. Experience gained from the study described in the present article will allow to apply this method to the other VITA color scale ready-to-press powders.
Zdzisław Wiśniewski M.Sc. Eng.

Mullite powder synthesis by solid state reaction in powder bed
The paper presents interpretation of results mullite the base composition (3Al2O3 · 2SiO2) which have been synthesized from nanometer size alumina and amorphous silicon dioxide. The results were compared to the effects of the mullite synthesis from micrometer size raw materials. Obtained at different temperatures of synthesis, sintered bodies have been analyzed under qualitative and quantitative phase composition (XRD) and microstructure (SEM). The paper presents interpretation results and determinates substrate’s grain size of raw materials dependence on the synthesis temperature.
Piotr Taźbierski M.Sc. Eng.

The impact of quality performance insulating glass units to preserve their usefull parameters
Passive construction requires the use of energy-efficient building materials. Striving to achieve high thermal insulation of buildings is reflected also in the production of insulating glass units. It is important that the glass installed in the building were of high quality because only then will be able to perform its function. The article discussed the basic functions insulating glass units, normative requirements and methods of their control. Presented quality insulating glass units and a factor in obtaining these materials good performance characteristics.
Anna Balon-Wróbel M.Sc. Eng.

Effect of heat treatment and the nature of the interlayer on the mechanical strength of laminated glass for building
The article described the types of glass and polymeric materials used for the construction of laminated glass and laminated safety glass, The paper presented comparative results of different designs of laminated glass on four point bending strength, pendulum impact and ball. The method of determining the effective thickness of laminated panes used for the calculations of mechanical strength was described.
Iwona Kozubek M.Sc Eng., Jacek Brzezicki M.Sc. Eng

III 2015

The expression of brick facades on the example of the German and Austrian architecture     
The text is about an application of bricks as a buildings' façades primary material. It is characterized for example by a style known in architecture as "Backsteinexpressionismus", occurring mainly in German-speaking territories. The article has so to decide if the brick façades are popular according to pragmatism or the historical and cultural circumstances. The examples of the design for different brick surfaces suggest that this building-material may be the primary means of expression of an architectural form.
Aleksander Serafin Ph.D. Eng.

The Grodziec Collection – analysis, conservation and restoration of three stained-glass panels from the National Museum in Wrocław.
The paper concerns three stained glass panels from the National Museum in Wroclaw, which have undergone a conservation/restoration treatment. The preliminary results of the analysis performed by means of modern analytical methods such as X-ray fl uorescence macro scanner MA-XRF, are outlined. The general conservation/restoration treatment is described, with a particular emphasis on the esthetical matter.
Marta Kamińska M.Sc.

Microwave solvothermal synthesis of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles
Co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by microwave solvothermal synthesis (MSS) technique. The nanoparticles were produced from a solution of zinc acetate and cobalt (II) acetate using ethylene glycol as a solvent. The content of Co2+ in Zn1-xCoxO was in range of 1–15% mol. The following material nanostructure properties were investigated: skeleton density, specifi c surface area (SSA), phase purity (XRD), lattice parameter, dopant content, average particle size, particle size distribution and morphology. X-ray diffraction of synthesized samples showed a single phase ZnO nanostructure without indication of alien phases. Obtained Zn1-xCoxO composed of loose spherical particles with wurtzite crystal structure and average particle size 30 nm. SEM images didn’t show impact of increase of dopant content on morphology of nanoparticles.
Jacek Wojnarowicz M.Sc.Eng.

Identification of the phenomenon of discoloration on Low-E coating of glass pane used in insulated glass units and its elimination
The article analyses different types of insulated glass units, which had been previously for some time a part of the facade of buildings. The first stage focuses on understanding the nature of the defect. There was checked infl uence of climatic conditions and physical processes (thermal bridges in IGU) on discoloration, and whether this type of defect is permanent. Comparative studies of the chemical composition of glass pieces with defect on the coating, and pieces of glass without the defects, have allowed the identifi cation of elements causing discoloration on the Low-E coating. Subsequently in the next stages of work research of various components of IGU which may contribute to the formation of discoloration were carried out. As a result components responsible for this phenomenon were identifi ed. In order to find a way to minimize or entirely eliminate discoloration effect research of different types of IGU were carried out. Depending on the IGU construction probabilities of defect occurrence were estimated.
Sławomir Pabian M.Sc Eng.

II 2015

Ornamentation selected stove tiles from Krakow as a contribution to the study of culture and society of the fifteenth and sixteenth-century city.     
This article demonstrates selected decorative motifs found on early modern stove tiles from the area of Krakow. In the present paper the different presentation were described and summarized with similar decorations on the tiles with other posts from Krakow, the Polish Kingdom, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Bohemia and Hungary. Iconographic analysis of the relief decoration of tiles indicated the prevalence and popularity of these motifs in certain areas, as well as helped to establish certain trends in the decoration furnaces at that time in Central and Eastern Europe. The results shows that Krakow and especially the royal court was a center drawing on the southern and western decorative patterns and shaped them into areas of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Renaissance costumes elements allowed increased knowledge about fashion and way of dressing in the same period.
Dominika Mazur M.Sc. Eng.

The impact of environmental factors on the mechanical properties of structural sealant
This article discusses the methodology of research the structural sealants to determine their strength properties. Presented the requirements which the masses sealing have to meet to be used in structural glazing. Also contains the results of two types of sealant and assesses the effect of the aging factor of the fundamental properties of sealants.
Anna Balon-Wróbel M.Sc Eng.

Introduction to the analysis of the ceramists lumbar spine overload, based on a literature review.
When describing the hazards associated with the work with ceramics, resarchers were focused only on the poisoning by the toxic fumes, or danger caused by being in dusty areas. Based on the literature and analyzing the way in which ceramists are working, we came to the conclusion that the another work hazard in that kind of the activity is overloading of the lower back. Pain in the lumbar spine is a result of the overloading spine stabilizers, and the intervertebral disc damage, which are caused by a big compression and shear force. These factors appear because of the poor posture during work /especially when lifting heavy objects/ as well as the persistence of a static position.
Bartosz Wysoczański M.Sc.

Identification of the phenomenon of discoloration on Low-E coating of glass pane used in insulated glass units and its elimination
Akaganeite is one of allotropic form of iron oxyhydroxide. Due to its tunnel crystalline structure, it is considered a promising material for sorption applications e.g. for heavy metal removal from water. In this work we present a relatively simple and effective processing route to form ß-FeO(OH) nanoparticles onto surface of carbon nanotubes. Such carbon tubes can be used as a modifier of filter materials for water treatment. Introduction of an active component on the surface of either polymeric or ceramic membrane enables simultaneous retention of solid particles, adsorption of heavy metal ions and provides protection against biofouling.
Justyna Tomaszewska M.Sc Eng.

I 2015

Studying influence of element Gd on voids degree of structure the tellurite glass     
Studying influence of element Gd on voids degree of structure the tellurite glass The tellurite glass such as: TeO2-P2O3-ZnOLiNbO3 as a reference glass and (TeO2-P2O3- ZnO-LiNbO3) (Gd2O3) has been studied. The positron lifetime PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) was used to analyze the structural properties of tellurite glasses. The proposed method, can identify structural defects which are diffi cult to capture by other traditional methods. The study showed the existence of two components Τ1 i Τ2. The basis of the two-state model parameters were calculated capture of positrons, which allow you to draw conclusions about the nature and degree of defect studied tellurite glasses.
prof. AJD Jacek Filipecki Ph.D. Eng.

Ceramics overcoming brittleness: elementary notions
Relations between the rate of elastic energy release and stress intensity coefficients permit a unified use of the Irwin’s fracture toughness concept and the Griffi th’s energy balance-based approach based on energy balance. That this allows a simple and general description and prediction of ways of increasing fracture toughness in various types of ceramic materials (monolithic polycrystals, particulate composites, all-ceramic fibre-reinforced composites and laminates).
prof. Roman Pampuch  Ph.D. Eng.

Chinese porcelain artefacts
During many years of archaeological research in the old town of Elblag, dozens of Chinese porcelain artefacts (china porcelain) were found. They consisted of a variety of dishes, such as cups for tea and alcoholic drinks, teapots with a grooved surface (moulded “pumpkin-shaped” teapots), small dishes for jam, dessert plates, and rice bowls. The dishes were decorated with blue and white painting (under-glaze blue painting), so called Kraak- porcelain from Wanli-Period, and the dishes had floral pattern (Blue and White Flora Reserves), covered on the exterior of the bowl being decorated with Batavia brown engobe from the Kangxi-Period. There were multicolour- painted dishes (over-glazed enamels) in the pink family technique, china-imari and imari-rouge-de-fer from the Qing-Period.
Barbara Pospieszna  Ph.D.

Synthesis of wollastonite on the basis of common raw materials
Wollastonite is a mineral used in various industries. Since there is no economically important deposits of wollastonite in Central Europe, groups of experiments were performed to prepare wollastonite based on cheap natural raw materials. The solid statereaction method was selected with interval of temperature in the range of 1000-1300°C. Lacustrine chalk, limestone and calcite veins were sources of calcium, whereas glass sand and quartzite schist were used as a source of silica. Best results were obtained for lacustrine chalk and quartzite schist. Another important factor is pressing before synthesis – better results were obtained for non-pressed samples.
Arkadiusz Gąsinski Ph.D., Ryszard Sałaciński  Ph.D.

VI 2014

Painted ceramics of Hallstatt Period from Poland     
In the article the author describes the phenomenon of painting the ceramic wares that emerged in south-western Poland during Hallstatt Period (about 700-450 BC). The ceramic forms, the process of painting, decorative motifs and their meaning were presented. Considerable attention was also paid to the genesis and the process of formation the manner of painting the pottery, its penetration to the territory of Poland and its cultural and social consequences.
Dagmara Łaciak  Ph.D.

The possibility of usage mine waste TG3 clay from Turoszów in sanitary ware production
In this paper preliminary results of imputing TG3 clay, such as cheap and alternative material in sanitary ware have been presented. The main purpose was to find the highest amount of TG3 clay that is possible to replace the original raw clay material for producing ceramics parts without decreasing technological parameters, such as: viscosity, density, fi ltration etc. The maximum was reached on level 37% in all components ratio. The over dosage changes clay equilibrium in suspension and among others has infl uence on burning temperature and deformations.
Stanisław Hybner  M.Sc. Eng.

Pottery grey and black Polish-Lithuanian borderland
The article presents a short story of potteries’ development in the borderland of Poland and Lithuania. Moreover, the secrets of production of siwak in Poland, bearing in mind one of the greatest centres, Czarna Wieś Kościelna, as well as black ceramics in Lithuania. The above mentioned black ceramics are being made in the Dzukija National Park, nearby Merkine, by the Niemen river. Particular stress was put on the methods of work, tools, ways of decoration, baking techniques and also new ways of ceramics’ manufacture. The selected creators of siwak in Poland and black ceramics in Lithuania have been discussed. It is worth mentioning that the problem of national identity and ethnic and cultural affiliation of presented regions and continuation of fi ring tradition by young generation has been shown.
Jarosław Wowak  M.Sc. Eng.

Examples of the Nanoparticles Produced by Microwave Solvothermal Synthesis (MSS) Route
Microwave solvothermal synthesis (MSS) is an example of microwave assisted wet chemical synthesis process. Microwave heating enables a precise control of the reaction time, fast heating and reducing the thermal gradients. This results in a better crystallinity of the nanoparticles comparing to the precipitation process, and a narrow size distribution. An additional advantage is a reduced synthesis temperature, since no calcination is need. In the paper we presented two new reactors used for the MSS process. We have shown their applications in the synthesis of nanohydroksyapatite ZnO and ZrO2, as well as the enhanced control of their properties possible due to the use of microwaves. The MSS-1 and MSS-2 reactors enable industrial scale production of nanoparticles.
Jacek Wojnarowicz  M.Sc. Eng.

V 2014

Stress in the glass     
Heat treatment used in the manufacturing of glass is one of the basic technological processes that contribute to the formation of stress. In industrial practice, in order to carry out a proper assessment of the durability of glass products, and in the case of tempered glass and predict the degree of hardening stress distribution methods are used based on the phenomenon of photoelastic birefringence forced. These tests allow you to analyze the size, type and distribution of stresses. The paper presents the results of stress distribution and to assess the size of the economic glassware, packaging, laboratory and fl at with a different state of stress. Provides examples of the impact of various external factors (mechanical, thermal, chemical heterogeneity) on the state of stress in the glass.
Agnieszka Marczewska M.Sc. Eng., Anna Kuśnierz M.Sc. Eng.

“Mycenaean” faience beads from Kietrz in Upper Silesia
The article presents three beads, discovered in an early Lusatian culture grave in Kietrz in the Upper Silesia region and published 30 years ago as glass ones. Based on technological and stylistic features as well as comparative studies of Bronze Age beads made of vitreous materials originating from Europe and the Near East, it has been shown that these are actually artefacts made of ancient faience. They used to be adornments typical for the Eastern Mediterranean and in particular Mycenaean culture. They found their way to the Oder basin through the long distance trade on the amber route. The beads
were put to the grave as the central links of a necklace which acted as a personal adornment as well as an item bearing symbolic and magical value.
Paweł Rzeźnik   Ph.D.

Environmental assessment of proppant production technology based on LCA – compare evaluation
In this paper result of the environmental assessment of two proppant production technology is presented. Similarly as in the preparation of ceramic granules, classical technology includes as follow: milling of raw materials in a wet ball mill and spray-drying granulation. The new technology is based on low-energy wet milling of raw materials with use of drying mill and granulation in an intensive mixer. Environmental analysis was done for two technologies of granulation, based on life cycle assessment LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). Use of LCA analysis allowed to indicate different categories of environmental impact of compared technologies, including the emission of greenhouse gases and cumulative energy demand. The environmental assessment was carried out in accordance with PN-EN ISO 14044:2009, based on three methods of impact assessment: ReCiPe, IPCC, CED. Because of firing of compared granules in both cases is carried out in rotary kilns, comparative LCA analysis include technological operations of preparation of granules for firing.
prof. Stanisław Serkowski Ph.D. Eng., Jerzy Karol Ph.D. Eng.

Pride, Pottery and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Ireland
Throughout the nineteenth century it was oftentimes mentioned by British politicians or the British press that Ireland should utilize its natural resources in order to improve its condition. In the 1850s the discovery of feldspar and kaolin in County Fermanagh in the north-western part of Ireland ushered in the pottery industry on the Emerald Isle. The Belleek pottery allowed the Irish to feel proud. What is more, the clayware from Belleek found patrons in Queen Victoria and her son, who bought some specimens and, thus, popularized it in Great Britain. On the heels of the spectacular success of the Belleek came Fredrick Vodrey who not only produced excellent pottery but by employing Celtic motifs became a part of the Gaelic Revival, which helped to the Irish to bolster their national identity and mitigate the infl uence of Anglo-Saxon culture. The article shows what role the Belleek and Vodrian pottery played in Ireland in the nineteenth century when the Irish where trying to gain independence.
Paweł Hamera Ph.D.

IV 2014

Konstanty Laszczka – sculptor and ceramist  
Konstanty Laszczka was most famous as a sculptor, but he was also concerned, but first of all ceramics, which made him famous. As a child he liked to carve. His works were appreciated by wife of Jan Ostrowski, local tellurian. She helped young Konstanty to make a move to Warsaw, where he began sculpture studies. In 1899 at the invitation of painter Julian Fałat, Laszczka settled in Kraków where he became the professor at the Academy of Fine Arts. Most of his works were inspired mosty by personalities observed In his everyday life, but also by mythological and religious busts and caricatures. In ceramic works of artist there are noticeable topics referring to his childhood showing a man while working in the fields, children playing rural, rural scenes and fantastic animals. He died in 1956. In small town Dobre the school was named by the name of Konstanty Laszczka and the museum of his works was founded there.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.


Fly ash, resulting from the combustion of biomass, alternative to natural feldspars
The study evaluated the possibility of using fly ash from the combustion of biomass in the production of sintered ceramic materials. Presented a qualitative evaluation of these waste materials, including the ability to apply them in a place popularly used feldspars in ceramic masses. The evaluation of the quantity of the fly ash fed to the raw material was done in the context of the ability to fulfi ll the quality requirements of the industry. The study was based on the microstructural analysis, the measurement of the apparent density, open porosity and water absorption.
Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng., Ilona Lisiecka M.Sc. Eng.


Folk and Artistic Industry Cooperative "Kwiatogal" – beginings, production and style
The article covers the topic of a fairly forgotten Folk and Artistic Industry Cooperative "Kwiatogal". The cooperative was established in 1950 in Warsaw and initially it specialized in artificial flowers production. In 1951 it opened porcelain paint shop and this part of its activity – hand painted porcelain – is the main subject of this article. The author explains the style of the Kwiatogal's pieces of porcelain, the approval process for new designs and the diffi culties the painters faced at decorating porcelain sets. The author also tries to characterize the designs created at Kwiatogal's paint shop giving the highest value to geometric and fi gurative designs falling into the global design trend called "New Look". She also mentions the names of ceramic artists: Danuta Duszniak and Stanisław Tworzydło exercising artistic supervision over the cooperative's production.
Anna Wiszniewska Ph.D.


High temperature resistant ceramic crucibles for transparent ceramics fabrication
In the presented paper fabrication method of ceramic crucibles for special application (sintering of advanced ceramics) is presented. Crucibles were moulded in plaster moulds from ceramic slips. Suspensions of ceramic particles, used for moulding, were characterized in terms of their rheological properties. These properties were quantifi ed by means of Bingham model (in plastic region) and Power law parameters (in shear rate region, where viscous response for applied shear appeared).
Magdalena Gizowska Ph.D. Eng.

III 2014

The light and dark sides of energy efficiency of glass facades
The article presents a short characteristics of the factors infl uencing the energy effi ciency and thermal characteristics of glass facades used in Poland. Since the type of glass used in facades signifi cantly affects their energy efficiency, a characteristics of solar-active glass which is capable of changing its optical properties is also provided. Furthermore, the article includes information on complex calculations of the thermal balance taking into consideration the solar power generated owing to the application of modern technologies of active glazing of large areas.
Irena Ickiewicz Ph.D. Eng.


Clay in Armenian architecture
The article is based on own research through excavations and on data from the literature, and describes the use of clay in Armenian architecture from ancient times up until now. Clay (raw and baked) usage in architecture is diverse. Clay fireplaces, ritual vessels, altars, and fireplace housings, often adorned with zoomorphic elements, can be commonly found throughout the whole history of Armenian architecture. Issues related to the use of clay in interior design, courtyards of buildings, and as decorative art in public space are discussed.
Lilit Ter-Minasyan M.Sc.


Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass
Life cycle assessment of float glass for building engineering was carried out using the Eco-indicator 99 method in the range “from cradle to gate”. It has been shown that the highest loads are connected with the resources category, whereas those connected with the human health category are nearly two times lower. Environmental hazards resulting from glass manufacture are to a relatively small extent connected with the ecosystem quality category. Fuels, particularly natural gas, are primarily a source of burdens. Among the mineral raw materials examined it is primarily soda determines the level of environmental hazard.
prof. UTH Ryszard Świetlik Ph.D. Eng.


The technological properties of SiC based slurries for manufacturing of ceramic shell moulds for aerospace industry
In the present paper technological properties of silicon carbide slurries in manufacturing shell moulds for investment casting of aircraft turbine elements were studied. Ceramic SiC slurries with a solid concentration of 65 wt. % were applied. As a structural binder polymer nanocomposite containing nano Al2O3 was used. The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) 47-88 with molecular weight 47000 g/mol and hydrolysis degree 88%, used as a modifi cation binder was added at different amount: 6, 10, 15 wt. %. Characterization of SiC powder was made by: grain size by laser diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The properties of ceramic slurries such as: relative and dynamic viscosity, density, pH, plate (plate weight test) and wax adhesion were studied by a range of techniques. These measurements were taken in laboratory conditions by 96 hours at temperature 21oC.The results shows that slurries based on SiC, nanocomposite binder and PVAL meet the investment casting requirements of aircraft turbine parts and had promising properties.
Paweł Wiśniewski Ph.D. Eng.

II 2014

The Maya Ceramics of the Classic Period Pictorial Themes and Functions
In the article the Maya ceramics of the Classic period (approximately A.D 250-900) are described. During this time, the craftsmen of that people created some of the most interesting examples of ceramic crafts in pre-Columbian America. The article discusses the issues associated with the production of vessels and their decorating. Considerable attention was also paid to the scenes painted on vessels where many themes concerning Mayan society and beliefs are shown. Also described is the use of ceramic vessels that served both in everyday life and as the grave goods.
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.


Competitiveness of European ceramics industry and energy costs
The ceramics industry belongs to energy intensive industries, one third of production costs are costs of energy. The differences between energy prices in EU and USA, China and Japan were shown and their strong infl uence on competitiveness was stressed. The main targets of EU policies to achive industrial competitiveness and energy effi ciency has been presented. One the base of “Energy prices and costs report” prepared by EC the prices for energy in brick and roof tiles and wall and floor tiles sectors in Europe were compared. The main issues of Cerame Unie statement on 2030 climate and energy package were described.
Jerzy Czechowski Ph.D. Eng


Method of lowering the sintering temperature of the alumina materials containing more than 90% Al2O3
The paper describes work carried out at the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials on lowering the sintering temperature alumina material containing 93 wt% Al2O3, used for the production of ceramic grinding media and wear resistant linings used in ball mills and transmission lines of pneumatic transport systems. The way of conducting work on developing, fixing and testing the sintering temperature properties of the ceramic materials were presented. Obtained properties were compared to samples made of referenced material Al93.
Tadeusz Jakubiuk M.Sc. Eng.

Naliboki and Urzecze, a few words about glassworks owned by the Radziwiłłs
The article presents the history and characteristics of glassworks in Urzecze and Naliboki. Both glassworks were founded by Princess Anna Katarzyna Raddziwił (née Sanguszko). The Naliboki plant operated between 1722 and 1864, and the Urzecze one between 1737 and 1846. Such a long period of activity evidences a proper governance, despite the difficult political situation. The plants were well known from their skilled workers brought from Dresden. The owners paid attention to high quality of products The glass items produced in the Radziwiłłs’ glassworks were known from their artistic values and modern technology. It is important to remember that the large amount of the production was used for owners’ own needs. White and crystal glass was the most popular but the stained glass items were also produced. Glass products were often handed out as gifts but they were also sold with a profit. Products were decorated with Radziwills’ coats of arms and other friendly families symbols too. There were even a series with the monogram of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland. Various themes, such as plant motives, flowers, animals and even fi gural scenes were used as a decoration. Items where glass was cut into various patterns were the most appreciated ones.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.

I 2014

Conservation and restoration of the fountain with the figure shown against the background of a mirror in the Hermann Fränkel residential villa in Prudnik
The article shows the process and results of conservation and restoration works on an early 20th century fountain in the Hermann Fränkel residential villa in Prudnik, Kosciuszki 1A Street. The object consists of a woman bending while pouring water from a shell onto a mosaic of glass, surrounded by glass with brass framing. The fi gure is shown against the background of a round, chamfered mirror. Within the mirror are a number of brass profi les, the construction of which resembles that used in stained glass. The entire structure consists of a number of materials including glass, gilded glass mosaic, brass, marble, metal plate as well as layers of paint.This variety of materials was challenging and needed technological study and trial, involving the most recent, as well as innovatory, conservation and restoration techniques.
Michał Matuszczyk Ph.D, Marta Sienkiewicz Ph.D., Piotr Romiński M.Sc.


Maiolica from Nieborów and the discussion on „national art”
The maiolica manufactory in Nieborów was established by prince Michał Piotr Radziwiłł in 1881. Its director was Stanisław Thiele, who had worked in Nevers, France and in Ćmielów. Maiolica from Nieborów reflects the style popular in Europe at that time. It is eclectical, has the forms similar to French or Italian wares. Warsaw journals got involved in heated debates about the style of Nieborów maiolicas. They were criticised for their „Old German” forms and „garish decoration”, it was suggested that inspiration should be drawn from Polish folk pottery. Today, however, the maiolica from Nieborów is seen as one of the most interesting examples of European historicist pottery.
Bożena Kostuch

Sol-gel derived thin films based on SiO2
Thin film SiO2 (Tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS) based coatings with or without organic additives (1,2-Propylene glycol, Poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-blockpoly (ethylene glycol) and doped with metal acetyloacetonates from a group of (Zr, Ti, Sn, Ce, W, Mo, Co) in solutions with organic solvents, and/or MgF2, were obtained on glass by dipping or spray mode. The coatings were examined by GID-XRD, SEM/EDS and UV/VIS/NIR spectroscopy methods and revealed morphology strongly dependent on the composition of zols and heat treatment procedures. The coatings with spectrophotometric parameters similar or better than those of commercial fi lter glasses for digital cameras were obtained.
Tadeusz Jakubiuk M.Sc. Eng.

Mechanical properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) submitted to Hot Isostatic Pressing and pressureless sintering process – comparative analysis

In the presented paper mechanical properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) material were studied. Silicon nitride samples were obtained from commercially available powder. Two paths of ceramic manufacturing were applied to obtain fully densifi ed bodies. All of the samples were sintered in nitrogen in atmospheric pressure. Part of the samples were additionally subjected to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). Apparent density, bending strength, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured for the two set of samples, which differed in preparation path. The results were analyzed in order to estimate the infl uence of pressure assisted post-sintering (HIP process) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon nitride material.

Artur Oziębło Ph.D. Eng.

VI 2013

Glass facades in energy-saving buildings
Changes in regulations and fashion for energy efficiency forces on modern building development of new materials and technology. Facades of buildings, which until recently have mainly representative functions, have to adapt to this trend. The purpose of this article is to review modern glazing facades systems of buildings. The requirements which must be fulfilled by glass facades to be considered for low energy were presented. There are also presented capabilities of obtaining solar energy in modern facades and windows.
Małgorzata Fedorczak-Cisak Ph.D Eng., Alicja Kowalska-Koczwara Ph.D. Eng.

Design methods of building glass
The paper presents design rules of the glass structures. The article summarizes the most popular design methods and describes a calculation method based on the draft European standards. The article contains the author's comments on the practical aspects of the design.
Artur Piekarczuk Ph.D. Eng.

Yttrium (III) oxide application for manufacturing prime coat of ceramic shell moulds used in investment casting
This work present the rheological properties of ceramic slurries based on yttrium oxide powders with two different granulation (200 mesh and 325 mesh) added in a ratio of 35%÷65% by weight. Solid phase was 81 wt.%. To manufacture ceramic shell moulds the Evonik binder with nanoparticles of aluminium oxide was used. In addition the poli(acrylic) binder as a liquefi er was also used. Y2O3 it’s a new material used to fabricate ceramic shell moulds for investment casting of turbine aircraft parts using nickel and titanium superalloys. Grain size and microstructure observation were researched for yttria. Relative and dynamic viscosities, density, pH and plate weight test of ceramic slurries were studied. The measurements were taken by 96 hours. It were proven that ceramic slurries based on yttrium (III) oxide meet the standard investment casting requirements. After tests, ceramic shell moulds for investment casting aircraft turbine parts were manufactured by Bridgman technique.
Marcin Małek M.Sc. Eng.

Paxton Vobiscum’: Joseph Paxton and the phenomenon of the Crystal Palace

The article deals with the history of the success of the Crystal Palace that was built in London as the venue of the Great Exhibition of 1851. It symbolized the might of the British Empire as well as the ingenuity of its author, a gardener, Joseph Paxton (1803-1865). The erection of such an impressive building was possible thanks to the outcomes of the Industrial Revolution and Paxton’s experiments with the use of glass and steel. Being initially a source of disputes and anxiety, the Crystal Palace became a major attraction of the Great Exhibition. In addition, it allowed Paxton to go down in history as one of the best architects of the Victorian period.

Paweł Hamera Ph.D.

V 2013

Pueblo Indians from Utah and Colorado – Ancients architects and potters
The Mesa Verde region, located in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, is well known to archaeologists and many tourists because of its beautiful landscape and famous cliff dwellings in the alcoves of the sandstone canyons. These ancient villages were constructed an inhabited during the XIII century A.D. by Pueblo culture. This region was one area where ancient Puebloans developed their culture to a great extent. Today, visible traces of it are well preserved architecture in canyons’ alcoves and niches as well as artifacts, and especially black-on-white pottery. Since 2011 study of the settlement model and socio-cultural changes that took place in Pueblo culture as well as documentation of material culture, mainly pottery is realized by Sand Canyon- Castle Rock Community Archaeological Project, first Polish archaeological project in USA, conducted in the Mesa Verde region, southwestern Colorado.
Radosław Palonka Ph.D.

Synthesis and properties of ecological composites sintered
The subject of research presented in this paper was to try to carry slag from the glass fiber in the composite sintered solid at selected temperature-time parameters. The study used slag derived from the processes of solid waste incineration and a mixture of E and C -glass fi ber. The resulting composites were subjected to microstructural analysis and identification were selected physical properties such as apparent density, open porosity, absorption, and also resistance to ions leaching in a water environment was studied using the method of specimens boiling in distilled water during 60 minutes followed by measurement of water pH. Abrasion resistance was also assessed via friction of the surface by a freely rotating ball during 60 minutes (Calotester).
Ilona Łęgowik M.Sc. Eng., Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng.

Synthesis and properties of inorganic pigments based on titanate pyrochlore compounds
New ceramic pigments based on pyrochlore structure Y2Ti1-xMnxO7 (x=0,01-0,1 M) were developed employing solid-state reaction synthesis at high temperature 1400°C. The goal was to determine the infl uence of concentration of chromophore (Mn) and type of mineralizers on the colouring effects of these compounds. The selected pigments were applied into ceramic transparent and opacity glazes as well as into gres mass. Glazes and mass were burned at 1200°C. The results indicated that these pigments can provide red-orange hues and that these compounds are stable in opacity glaze and gres mass.
Natalia Mietła Eng., Agnieszka Gubernat Ph.D. Eng.

Outline of the history of stained glass art in Poland

The article presents history of glass art from the beginning of Polish state until present moment describing the most important examples highlighting periods of the greatest development of this craft i.e. Middle Ages and Art Nouveau. The outline contains history of stained glass from the first pieces of stained glass found in Kalisz on which small painted and scratched ornaments were discovered. The composition of used glass is known by chemical analysis what gives us knowledge of contemporary technology. The author discuss also medieval examples of stained glass from Kraków, Toruń, Włocławek and Chełmno. In Modern Times stained glass art lost its importance and is used rarely replaced by other decorative motifs.

Karolina Wolska M.Sc.

III 2013

The Ceramics of the Peruvian Moche Culture
In the article the author briefly describes the ceramics of the ancient Moche culture which developed on the northern Peruvian coast in the period of approximately A.D. 100-850. The Moche artisans created one of the most original and outstanding pieces of ceramic art in ancient South America. The author describes the process of ceramic production from claypreparation, through slip painting, to firing. The scenes depicted on the pottery are also discussed.
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.

Transparent ceramics, new materials for optic and optoelectronics
In the paper the conditions for obtaining transparent ceramics and the method of doping oxide based ceramics are described. The optical classifi cation dividing transparence ceramics in to optically active and passive is presented. Prospects for transparent ceramic applications in the laser nuclear fusion, are suggested. The technology of the manufacturing transparent ceramics, developed in the Nanoceramics Department, is disclosure in details.
prof. ICiMB, Adam Witek M.Sc.

Karol Tichy as the creator of the Ceramics Workshop at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw
Article presents the history and development of the ceramics studio, which was led by Karol Tichy from 1924 until the outbreak of war in 1939. The artist was associated with the Academy since its inception, promoted the teaching of Decorative Art, and therefore the creation of pottery workshop was a turning point in his teaching career and his own work. The workshop was primarily educational in nature and science in a relationship, and then experimented with the form, types of glazes and decorations. Karol Tichy’s extraordinary enthusiasm and putting more and more tasks made achievement to a very high level of work possible and done. Undoubtedly, Academy of Fine Arts Ceramics Workshop led by Tichy has developed the most outstanding Polish postwar potters, among them were such artists as: Julia Kotarbińska, Rudolf Krzywiec, Stanislaw Ptaszyński, Wanda Golakowska.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.

Clays from selected lignite deposits in Poland as a potential Raw material for ceramic industry

The requirements for new and less expensive raw materials and components is connected with the continuous development in building technologies. The perlite is one of the most promising raw material which have potential to be widely applicable in obtaining the new products for building industry. Additionally, as a secondary product of the perlite expansion process the fraction of expanded perlite with very small grain size < 0,1mm, is produced as a waste material. The Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials – Division of Glass Building Materials has undertaken research work on technology of the new products, especially light weight glass-ceramic aggregates for building industry use, prepared on a base of raw perlite and waste fraction of the expanded perlite.

Elżbieta Żelazowska Ph.D Eng., Paweł Pichniarczyk Ph.D. Eng., Sebastian Sacha M.Sc., Józef Zawiła M.Sc. Eng.,
Joanna Rybicka-Łada M.Sc. Eng.

IV 2013

Physical – chemical analyses of the wall tiles from Herbst Palace in Łodź for the purpose of their reconstruction
The wall ceramic tiles manufactured by Villeroy & Boch plants from the turn of nineteenth / twentieth century have been studied. The walls of the bathroom in the Herbst Palace being currently a room of the Museum of Art were covered by them. The macroscopic, microscopic and physical – chemical analyses (XRD, ICP-OES) of the body and glazes were made. The results of those analyses were used to reconstruct of the tiles with the same colour which had been used to conservation and restoration of the historic bathroom.
prof. ASP Henryk Stoksik Ph.D. Eng.

The Ceramics of the Nasca Culture
In the article the author describes the ceramics of the Nasca culture which developed on the southern Peruvian coast in the period of approximately A.D. 1-700. The ceramists of this ancient Indian society created extraordinarily colorful and masterfully made vessels with the use of simple techniques. The wares were decorated with the use of multicolor slips. The ancient Nasca potters achieved in this activity mastery which wasn’t surpassed by any other culture from this area. In the article the process of vessels production and decoration was described. Scenes and images which were depicted
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.

Cadinen painters on ceramics
This article presents the history of artistic majolica and terracotta workshop, founded in 1904 in Kadyny, on the Vistula Lagoon by Wilhelm II. The author discussed the main trends in ceramic art and painting and their evolution up to the 20’ Twentieth century also made silhouettes of the greatest painters on ceramics associated with Kadyny.
Barbara Pospieszna Ph.D.

Clays from selected lignite deposits in Poland as a potential Raw material for ceramic industry

Accompanying clay raw materials from lignite mines located in Central Poland were tested as raw materials for building ceramics industry. It was concluded that mineral composition has a decisive impact on technological properties of clay rocks. Rocks containing mixture of kaolinite, smectites and quartz have the best properties for ceramic uses. Clayey rocks overlie “Adamów” lignite deposit. On the other hand, most of clayey rocks from “Szczerców” deposit showed too high shrinkage and plasticity. This property can be easily correlated with very high content of smectites. Only few samples from “Szczerców” deposit have good ceramic properties, but unfortunately contain too many larger grains of carbonates, which makes them impossible to use in building ceramics industry.

Arkadiusz Gąsiński Ph.D., Ryszard Sałaciński Ph.D., Marta Michalska

II 2013

Hydrothermal synthesis of nano zinc oxide with selected precipitating substance application
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the substance precipitating on the morphology, particle size nano zinc oxide derived hydrothermal method in a microwave reactor. Was used as the precipitating substances: potassium hydroxide, urea, ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA). Conducted experiments have shown a significant effect on the properties of the resultant product is the selection of suitable precipitants. However, there were different grain shape, size and surface area. The results presented in this article is a continuation of work on the selection of the optimal reactor for hydrothermal synthesis of nano zinc oxide. Posted by results presented in his doctoral thesis.
Tomasz Strachowski Ph.D Eng.

Gas bubbles in the glass
The appearance of gas bubbles in the glass is a permanent phenomenon accompanying the melting of the glass. The removal of gas bubbles (clarification of the glass) and preventing their formation is one of the most difficult stages of the production of technical and commercial glass. The paper includes examples of chemical composition of gas bubbles in the glass occurring during the breakdown in the national factory, which are representative of the results from the expertise developed for glass in 1999–2005 and performed in the Department of Glass Technology Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Krakow.
Anna Kuśmierz M.Sc. Eng.

Immobilization of solid waste materials sintered
The study included waste materials in the form of slag, cullet and fiberglass. Done with a mixture of waste in the appropriate proportions set of raw materials, and subjected to a heat treatment, a series of tests. An analysis of microstructural, determined the apparent density, open porosity and water absorption, obtained by sintering. Using the scratch test method tests were performed scratch resistance diamond cone. The research found that the increase in cullet content in the samples resulted in a large increase in the apparent density at the expense
Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng., Ilona Łęgowik , Monika Strzelecka

Ceramic materials for dental prosthetics – optical and microstructural properties of zirconia ceramics

The aim of the work was to select the method of determine the value of translucency, a comparison of the optical characteristics of the selected zirconia materials, as well as an attempt to determine the relationships between the translucency and selected physical properties and microstructure characteristics of zirconia materials. The samples of commercial zirconia materials used in prosthetic dentistry were prepared and studied their basic physical and optical properties (apparent density, color, translucency, whiteness). Microscopic examination of pores and grain morphology was also performed, as well as translucency dependence on the physical properties and structure of zirconia ceramics was evaluated. In summary, characteristics in terms of the optical properties of the test materials were achieved and properties that, based on the research, had the greatest impact on translucency of materials were indicated.

Zbigniew Jaegermann Ph.D. Eng.

I 2013

Glass-ionomer cement and implants for use in otosurgery
In this paper glass-ionomer cement and implants for use in otosurgery, which were developed and produced at the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, were presented. Treatment of hypoacusia requires defects to be reconstructed in the ossicular chain of middle ear in the cases of pathology resulting from chronic ear inflammations, trauma or congenital malformations. The clinical studies have been performed at the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing in Kajetany. Results of these long-term studies were presented. The application of glass-ionomer materials is the best method giving excellent results with regard to the reconstruction of a damaged conducting system in the middle ear. The use of cement and implants allows the wide range of anatomical reconstructions of bone defects that are result of disease processes or surgical removal. The anatomic reconstructions allow to restore primary and optimal function of the treated tissues. Application of glass-ionomer implants enables significant reduction in operation time. The glass-ionomer cement and implants are equally useful for reconstructive surgery in children and adults.
prof. Henryk Skarżyński Ph.D. Eng., Joanna Karaś M.Sc. Eng, Tadeusz Floriańczyk Ph.D. Eng.

Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc-aluminum spinel
In this paper results of hydrothermal synthesis of zinc-aluminum spinel ZnAl2O4 were presented and discussed. Reactions were carried out in a microwave reactor ERTEC. The influence of process parameters (pressure, temperature and time) on the properties of obtained spinel powder were examined. Properly selected process parameters enabled a spinel particle size below 10 nm. Results described in the article were presented in author’s PhD thesis.
Tomasz Strachowski Ph.D. Eng.

Mechanochemistry methods in glass sealant synthesis
Mechanical activated barium silicate glasses were studied as a potential sealant for joining of different materials. Influence of glass batch mechanical activation on glass synthesis process was determined. Thermal properties and structure of BaO – SiO2 – MgO – ZnO system glasses containing less than 40% mas of SiO2 as the network forming component were studied. Mechanical activation on the thermal properties were investigated. Melting progress were tested using high temperature microscopy. Mechanical activation causes a decrease of the melting temperature and increase crystallization tendency of the investigated materials. The prospective glasses are indicated for sealant applications.
Małgorzata Ciecińska Ph.D. Eng. , Paweł Stoch Ph.D Eng.

Glasses with energy – saving low-emissive and solar control low-emissive coatings

Coating of the glass surface with thin films of metals and metal compounds such metal oxides and the others is a very effective way to obtain the new properties of the glass without necessity to modify the bulk glass composition. The thin film coated glass is commonly used in buildings with aim to enhance the user’s comfort and energy saving. The coatings of metal compounds on glass may be obtained both “on-line” during the forming process and „off-line”, but In that case the glass sheets needs to be carefully cleaned before coating process. Thin films of metals for low emissive glasses needs to be coated „off-line” in the vacuum conditions. The method commonly used in commercial production of energy saving low-emissive (Low-E) glasses is magnetron sputtering. In this paper there some basic information on the properties and coating methods used in glass industry for producing the Low-E and Solar-Low-E glasses have been presented.

Elżbieta Żelazowska Ph.D. Eng., Paweł Pichniarczyk Ph.D. Eng.
Glass-ionomer cement and implants for use in otosurgery
The paper concerns the fabrication of inorganic silicate and borosilicate glasses based on the chemical compositions of the industrial glasses. The examinated glasses were coloured on the green and blue by doped of chosen transition metal compounds: CoO and K2Cr2O7. Optical characteristics of colured glasses were used to determine influence of the colouring ions on the transmission and absorption spectra. This paper presents the most often used methods to define graphical and numerical characteristics of coloured glasses based on colour spaces: CIE XYZ and CIE Lab.
Agnieszka Terczyńska-Madej M.Sc. Eng, Marek Myszkowski Eng., Dominik Bysiek Eng., Katarzyna Cholewa-Kowalska Ph.D. Eng.,
prof. Maria Łączka Ph.D. Eng.