III 2016

Canopies for RAF fighter aircraf in World War II – design and influences
This paper discusses the changes in the design of canopies for British fighter aircraft in World War II. During the war, the state of the art for these aircraft types underwent a major evolution in terms of performance and armament. Somewhat underappreciated is the corresponding development of canopy designs, which proved to be a critical component in terms of pilot effectiveness and survivability. It will be shown that this development was influenced by the evolving perspective on the nature of the aerial warfare as well as improved construction methods. This resulted in not only massively improved designs at the end of the war, but also in establishing new concepts which are still in use today.
mjr USAF Timoty Justin Bronder Ph.D.

Location of glassworks on (near) Warsaw Targówek area
Location of glassworks on (near) Warsaw Targówek area Targówek (district of Warsaw since 1916) was the location of four glassworks. Their founding was a part of the process, which saw the shaping of the so called Warsaw Industrial District after the “January Uprising” (1863–1864). The owners of Warsaw chemical factory, Jan Ch. Kijewski and Adolf Scholtze, founded their glassworks in this area, during the 1870s. After 1909, another glassworks company: „Targówek”, owned by Moryc Wegmeister, existed for a short period of time. The third: „Zakłady Przemysłowe «Weneda» Szymański, Kurowski i S-ka” was founded in the 1920s, with the factory located at Radzymińska Street 138. In 1927, glass production was started at Radzymińska Street 116, which re-branded in 1930s, to „Huta i Rafineria Szkła «Targówek» Kazimierz Klimczak i S-wie”. One of the reasons for choosing such a small location for the factories, was the convenient transport conditions (expanded railway system). The four glassworks produced a decent variety of assortment, with laboratory, pharmacy and medical glass being the most common products.
Marcin Więcek M.Sc.

Magnesia refractory with zirconium oxide addition
Results of the study concerning ZrO2 as a modifying agent of magnesia refractory are presented. The aim was to develop a new MgO-ZrO2 refractory material with high thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance. In the experiments, commercially available synthetic magnesia clinker and monoclinic zirconia (baddeleyite form) were used. The effect of ceramic mass grain size distribution and the introduced amount of zirconium oxide on the properties of MgO-ZrO2 ceramics was determined. Properties of final samples such as linear shrinkage, open porosity, apparent density, cold crushing strength, gas permeability and thermal shock resistance (water cycles) were measured. For selected materials, corrosion resistance against two different corrosive agents was determined. Microstructure of obtained ceramics was also investigated by SEM. The obtained ceramics revealed: good dimensional stability (firing shrinkage less than 1%), high cold crushing strength of 50÷70 MPa, typical open porosity (14÷16%) and high values of thermal shock resistance (8-10 water cycles). The addition of zirconia was proved to enhance the corrosion resistance of ceramics.
Robert Kusiorowski Ph.D. Eng.,

Application of photopolymerization in shaping of structured ceramic tapes
Ceramic materials are widely used in almost every field of science or technology, as well as in everyday life. So versatile application of ceramic materials due to the fact that they have a number of unique physical and chemical properties allow using them in areas where polymers and metals fail. Nowadays, different shaping methods of ceramic materials with complex geometry which can be applied in optics, electronics, medicine, aerospace, etc. were developed. One of these methods is stereolithography which uses UV curable ceramic suspensions. However, the main disadvantage of this method is the high price of equipment and small size of printed elements. A much less expensive alternative which is capable to replace stereolithography in certain areas, does not require sophisticated equipment and can be used practically in every laboratory is a combination of tape casting with soft lithography. The article presents the possibility to combine these techniques in fabrication of surface-structured ceramic tapes.
Paweł Falkowski Ph.D. Eng., Agata Grzelak M. Sc. Eng.