III 2018

Effect of molecular weight and amount of PGE on SiC-based slurries
In the present paper properties of silicon carbide slurries in manufacturing shell moulds for investment casting of aircraft turbine elements were studied. Ceramic SiC slurries with a solid concentration of 60 wt. % were applied. As a structural binder nanodispersion containing colloidal Al2O3 was used. The poly(ethylene glycol) (PGE) with molecular weight 6000, 10000 and 20000 g/mol as a rheological modificators were added at different amount: 5, 10, 15 wt. %. Characterization of SiC powder were made by: grain size by laser diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD, XRF) methods. The properties of ceramic slurries such as: relative and dynamic viscosity, plate (plate weight test) and wax adhesion were studied by a range of techniques. These measurements were taken in laboratory conditions by 96 hours at temperature 21oC. The results shows that SiC-based slurries, nanodispersion binder and PGE meet the investment casting requirements of aircraft turbine parts and had promising properties.
Paweł Wiśniewski, Ph.D. Eng.

Physicochemical properties of glass-ceramic materials from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO system with barium oxide addition
Glass-ceramic materials are the subject of increasingly broader study due to the possibility of shaping their properties. These materials are obtained as a result of the suitable selection of the initial oxide composition and by suitable heat treatment. This paper presents effect of raw material composition on the physicochemical properties of glass-ceramic
materials from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2OCaO- MgO-BaO system. Three compositions differing in the raw materials introducing selected oxides to the system were examined. Three firing temperatures: 1190, 1200, 1210°C were used. As the selected properties, roughness, gloss, whiteness in the CIELab system and flexural mechanical strength after firing were measured. Differences were observed in the phase composition, which were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characteristic temperatures, which were measured by using hot stage microscopy and optical dilatometry, also showed changes.
Karolina Kaczmarczyk M.Sc.

Development of technology for waste management created at the production of technical ceramics wares
The publication presents the method of obtaining alumina ceramic granulate in a spray dryer from waste generated during the forming of green wares. The type and amount of necessary additives were determined, which allow to obtain a regranulate with properties identical to the original granulate. The products made from it achieve the required performance.
Tadeusz Jakubiuk M.Sc. Eng.

Dining rooms of Lodz's bourgeoisie in 19th and 20th century
At the turn of the 20th century the most numerous group among the habitants of Lodz was the petty bourgeoisie which accounted 20% of its society. The proper bourgeoisie originating from this group was about 7%. Forefront of industrial families contained of: Scheiblers, Poznańscy, Geyers, Heinz, Meyers, Grochmans, Herbsts, Silbersteins, Biedermanns, Hertz, Scheiweikerts and Eitingons. Because of their social status they were able to create their own forms of etiquette. It was based not only on the behavior of western aristocracy but also contained elements taken from their families tradition. One of the most important pieces of this etiquette were broadly defined culinary issues. Social and family interactions were mainly pursued at the dining table. Therefore it was of utmost importance to pay attention to every detail of the setting where the meetings were held as well as the overall look and decoration of the dining room. This article presents the result of the research conducted on both the symbolic and material of the titular table, connected to the rooms equipment, iconography of the interiors and the living customs. It is based on the archival and iconographical materials, memoirs and prose devoted to the city of Lodz.
Łukasz Grzejszczak Ph.D.

II 2018

Influence of acidic and alkaline environment on surface degradation of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP )
The aim of the research described in this publication was to investigate the influence of acidic and alkaline environments on the surface degradation of Yttrium-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics (Y-TZP). The measure of degradation (aging) were changes in the amount of monoclinic zirconia phase (m-ZrO2) in the material and bending strength values. Tests samples were prepared from three Y-TZP powders marked as: OLD, CH3 and HT and were subjected to an aging process in the following solutions: 5M H3PO4 (K1), 5M H2SO4 (K2), 5M NaOH (Z) and distilled water (W) at 90°C during 72 hours. The reference samples were these not aged (NS) and as a control – samples aged in distilled water (W). To assess the impact of individual factors, the XRD phase analysis, surface observations in the SEM scanning microscope and bending strength tests were performed. In all aged samples an increase in the amount of monoclinic phase was observed as compared to not aged samples. The results indicate that the highest increase in m-ZrO2 phase occurs after aging in 5M NaOH and the bending strength is not unequivocally correlated neither with the type of aging nor with the increase in the monoclinic phase in the samples.
Adam Kolenda D.D.S, Paulina Tymowicz-Grzyb M.Sc.

Tiles. Their Short History from the Ancient Elam to the 16th Century Antwerp
The paper discusses briefly the history of wall and floor tiles from their very beginning (various objects from e.g. the Elam civilisation, Babylon, China, Rome etc.) till the 16th century Antwerp, where the Italian craftsmen specialising in the art of majolica settled at that time. Special emphasis has been put on the Arabic heritage, most inspirational for the European ceramic tradition.
prof. Piotr Oczko

Synergy in sintered particulate composites
The article describes, on the selected examples, the possibilities of improving the physical properties of sintered polycrystalline materials by producing composites. All technologies of sintering multi-phase powders aiming at obtaining the highest density of the product, lead to obtaining materials that are in a complicated state of internal stresses. At the same time, sintering of multiphase systems proceeds in a way that significantly modifies the microstructural parameters of the final material. Another feature, obvious from the point of view of the definition of a composite, but necessary to emphasize, is the presence of an interface, which can significantly modify the properties of materials. In the work, on the example of real materials from the Al2O3/ZrO2 system, the properties of polycrystalline composites, which can be improved in the composite in a synergistic manner, such as fracture toughness, subcritical crack resistance, resistance to cavitation wear, are indicated.
prof AGH Zbigniew Pędzich Ph.D. Eng.

The use of laminated car glass in the production of foam glass
In the paper the possibilities of using waste from laminated car glass type VSG in the foaming process with the addition of ceramic scrap were assessed. The samples were subjected to the foaming process using experimentally selected optimal temperature parameters. The microstructure of the obtained foam glass was examined. The influence of the ceramic scrap on the process of foam formation was determined.
Anna Zawada Ph.D.

I 2018

The use of the sol-gel method in the modification of ceramic materials with silver nanoparticles
This paper presents a review of the literature on the properties of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag). Properties that are beneficial from the point of view of the intended applications have been described in detail, as well as undesired properties that increase the risk associated with the cytotoxicity and ecotoxicity of nano-Ag. A review of the literature concerning the modification of nano-Ag with metal oxides was also presented. Various methods for the production of nanomaterials from this group, as well as multi-component systems of bioglass, have been described in a comprehensive way. It was shown that the sol-gel method is not only not very complicated from a technological point of view, but also very flexible, through the possibility of using different types of ceramic precursors and a wide range of conditions of the processes. Data indicate that modifications of Ag with alumina particles using the sol-gel method lead to the production of interesting biological properties, often significantly different compared to free Ag nanoparticles. However, it is still difficult to control the final product morphology and the repeatability of the sol-gel processes because of the phenomenon of diffusion and mass transport often results in the size increase of the produced particles as well as the formation of agglomerates.
Anita Rozmysłowska M.Sc. Eng.

Diversity of chemical composition in components used in glass making according to Theophilus Presbyter
Attempts to reconstruct medieval technologies and archaeological finds are difficult and problematic. Differences between local environments influence on chemical composition of raw wood materials and ancient books are partially incomplete – from our point of view. Various materials used for medieval glassmaking (according to Theophilus Presbyter from 11–12th century) were collected and analysed. Attempts to obtain potasic ash glass in laboratory were made.
Jarosław Michałek M.Sc.

Uranium in historical glass
The paper discusses selected issues related to an occurrence of uranium in historical glass, such as a natural occurrence of uranium in glass, history and selected properties of uranium glass as well as radioactivity of historical glasses with a particular attention to uranium glasses.
Jerzy J. Kunicki-Goldfinger Ph.D.

Application of molecular dynamics in examination of glasses
Application of molecular dynamics in examination of glasses Molecular dynamics MD is one of computer simulation methods of multiatomic or multimolecular systems. It allows to examination of structure and properties both crystalline and amorphous materials. This technique consists of the numerical solution of the classical equation of motion. It complements not only experimental methods but also it is tool make possible examination of material structure on the unavailable level for conventional methods. In order to introduce to molecular dynamics, the simulations of two glasses 80SiO2-20Na2O and 85SiO2-15Na2O [%mol] were performed. Obtained results corresponds well to the actual state of knowledge. Performed simulation testify that this technique is a very useful to examine glass structure. Using this method, it is possible to predict influence of modifiers on glass network, it’s make possible indication research direction and optimization of chemical composition.
Paweł Goj M.Sc. Eng.

VI 2017

Preliminary studies on the use of fine fractions of chalcedonit in ceramic technologies
Chalcedonite is a unique siliceous material extracted from the Teofilów deposit in Inowłódz, Poland. Specific properties of the material, such as a high content of amorphous silicon dioxide and high porosity (up to 25%) promote an incorporation of the chromophore component (Fe2O3) particles into the pores and their “enclosure” in the SiO2 structure in the process of high-temperature sintering. The test method used for verification and quantitative evaluation of Fe2O3 incorporation into the SiO2 matrix is hot leaching of the ferric component from the sinter structure in an acidic environment. The obtained coloured sinter of a composite character displays the properties of both components simultaneously. Like quartz, it is resistant to chemical influences from the environment at high temperatures; also, it is red-brown due to the colour of the hematite particles. The colouration of the ceramic material (floor tile mass) expressed with the parameters: L*. a*, b*, proves colour stability of the sinter employed as a pigment. The presented study results of a preliminary nature promise good effects of hematite occlusion in the SiO2 matrix, also in largescale processes.
prof. ICiMB, Cecylia Dziubak Ph.D. Eng., Paulina Tymowicz-Gzyb M.Sc.

Ceramic materials in dentistry
Over the last 20 years there has been a rapid development in dental prosthetics, which can be observed in the improvements in the mechanical and aesthetic properties of the materials introduced, as well as in their processing technology. This improvement can be linked with a desire to create prosthetic restorations meeting the ever-increasing aesthetic
requirements of patients; and as a consequence, materials and methods used, although proven and very effective, are increasingly being replaced by new technologies. The article presents the classification of ceramic materials used in restorative dentistry, taking into account selected aspects. Differences between commonly used metal-ceramic restorations and relatively new all-ceramic ones were noted. Much attention was paid to materials based on zirconium dioxide, which due to their unique aesthetic and mechanical properties have become increasingly popular in recent years and have begun to replace silicate ceramics. Use of CAD/CAM systems as an alternative to time-consuming and labor-intensive traditional restoratives, was also discussed. Weaknesses of these systems, which still need to be improved, were also indicated.
Michał Wydra D.D.S, Iwona Grelowska M.Sc. Eng.

Studies of the properties of alumina and aluminosilicate slurries for ceramic shell moulds
The paper presents results properties of alumina and aluminosilicate slurries dedicated to the first layer and construction layers of shell molds, respectively. The influence of the solid phase content on the parameters of the slurries was determined. Particle size distribution was determined with use of the advanced laser particle size analyzer Horiba LA-950 (LALLS technique). To characterize morphology of the powders and binder scanning electron microscopy (SEM and STEM) observations were performed. The slurries were prepared in a mechanical mixer. The experiment was based on a daily plate weight tests and pH, Zahn cup (4 mm diameter) viscosity and dynamic viscosity by rheometer with a shear rate range of 1–100–1 1/s measurements that are fundamental for investment casting industry. Adhesion of the examined mass was determined by the plate immersion (dimensions: 75×75 mm) in a slurry and estimation its weight of 75.46 g. The slurry dipping was controlled during 180 seconds with results notation every 15 seconds. The obtained results proved opportunity of their application for the investment casting and foundry, being prospective issue for future fabrication of shell moulds.
Paweł Wiśniewski Ph.D.

Analysis of the properties of glasses of multilayer coatings based on TiO2 exposed to UV radiation and salt fog.
This article discusses the role of coatings used in building glazing and the requirements that must be met according to standards in force, with particular regard to self-cleaning coatings. The chemical composition and thickness of the coating were determined using an electron microscope and the light and energy parameters of the self-cleaning glass were determined. The degree of degradation of these glass surfaces was determined by exposure to aging agents (UV radiation and salt mists) and the effects of these factors on light and energy properties were determined. A final analysis of the results obtained.
Anna Balon-Wróbel M.Sc., Agnieszka Marczewska

V 2017

Low-temperature degradation of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics. Part 2: Preliminary EBSD study
The results of EBSD (Elektron Backscattered Diffraction) study on the low-temperature degradation (LTD) phenomenon of zirconia materials were presented. The aim of the study was to answer the question whether the EBSD method can be used to identify the initial LTD stages of Y-TZP zirconia. For comparative purposes, previous results on XRD study and SEM observation, published in part 1 of the article, was used. The results of the studies have shown that the sensitivity of EBSD method for detecting early stages of t›m transformation is significantly higher than that of XRD and SEM. Analysis of EBSD diffraction patterns revealed the presence of monoclinic phase in the superfi cial layers of materials despite the fact that the diffraction patterns did not show it.
Paulina Tymowicz-Gzyb M.Sc.

Influence of foaming raw material fi nning on foam glass porosity
The influence degree of grinding of foaming raw material (limestone) on porosity of foam glass was investigated. Materials batches of different degree of grinding limestone and glass cullet (particle size of 0.063 mm) were foamed. The microstructure and the basic physical properties of the resulting foam glass was analyzed. The study allowed to examined the shape and size of pores. The optimal degree of grinding of the foaming raw material has been determined.
Małgorzata Lubas Ph.D. Eng.

At work, in a cafeteria, at home and in a kindergarten. New forms of tableware as an answer to the changing needs, living conditions and dietary habits in the 1950s and 1960s Poland.
The development of modern Polish tableware in the 1950s and 1960s was driven by the Institute of Industrial Design, which was opened back in the 1950s. At the very beginning of the 1950s, a team of designers employed by the Institute started to work on implementing production of dishes that would fi t the post-war reality much better: small apartments and the promoted family model, in which both parents worked and children were sent to nursery or kindergarten. In this model, family members ate outside: in the canteens at work and school or cafeterias. The answer to those needs was the tableware designed in 1953 for the self-service mass caterers. Designs that followed focused on designing for children (Barbara Fribes, 1961) or developing “sanatorium” tableware for people with limited hand mobility (Danuta Duszniak, 1967–1968). The answer to the new way of spending time at home – in front of the TV was the “TV set” designed by Zofia Przybyszewska in 1956 consisting of a cup and an elongated saucer that could also fi t a small snack.
Anna Wiszniewska Ph.D.

Features of ceramic decoration in industrial space of the Former Clinker Works in Nowogrodziec near Bolesławiec (1880–1930)
The article presents the results of documentation works underway at the historical complex of buildings of the former clinker works. They were the basis for entering the site and the unique decorative elements into the register of technological and industrial monuments. The clinker works in Nowogrodziec, built between 1864–1930, are an example of industrial complex in which, apart from purely functional features – the spatial arrangement and the structure of buildings serving technological needs – we also fi nd the ceramic facade ornaments. They are present on administrative and production buildings (pattern shop, mould room, raw materials storage facilities, drying room, furnace rooms, and chimneys). Chronological stratification of the complex made it possible to date the glazes, plaques, ceramic tiles, fi gures and individual ornamental motifs appearing on the building facades. The ornaments serve also as a presentation of ceramic techniques and technology – colourful glazes and masses. Another characteristic feature of these decorations is the rich variety of motifs, compositions and techniques found frequently within a single building. It constitutes a type of an “outdoor” catalogue of architectural elements, details and terracotta sculpture forms manufactured at the works from the beginning of its operation until 1980’s. The efforts to document the complex made it possible to confirm the hypothesis that the ornaments constituted a standard of reference. In addition to the aesthetic value, they have a number of non-essential functions important for industrial culture researchers – normative, technical, technological, analytical functions (state of the facade ceramics), identification and advertising of the plant and the basis for decision making and conservation. The attempt to read the non-ethical values of the decoration presents an elaborate methodological approach to documentation procedures of industrial objects. Apart from their aesthetic value, the ornaments are normative in character, of importance for conservation or preservation decisions made in connection with the planned revitalization of the site.
Ewa Łukaszewicz-Jędrzejewska Ph.D.

IV 2017

Adaptation of a sacred interior with acoustic ceramic modules
The paper presents the authors’ own idea of a module ceramic system. The design was prepared for a specific sacred interior in order to improve acoustic and visual properties. The system includes twelve modules with sound reflective, diffusive and absorptive acoustic properties, respectively. A module ceramic system is a consistent artistic concept which ensures a fluent transition within the system between its modules with different acoustic properties. The character of the designed acoustic system was adjusted to the sacred interior with a flame as its motive. The paper presents the designed system, from acoustic investigations, to the linear design, details of the concept, and preparations of modules to the complete design of the interior.
Klaudia Grygorowicz-Kosakowska Ph.D., Anna Sygulska Ph.D. Arch

On the margins of the search for Quarjat as-Saqaliba: early medieval pottery from the emirate of Nekor
The emirate of Nekor existed in the VIII–XI century A.D. in the Rif mountains, in the area of today's northern Morocco. At the turn of the ninth and tenth century at the court of the ruler of the emirate a rebellion broke, consisting his personal guard of Slavic slaves who took refuge in Qarjat as-Saqaliba, the village of Slavs. A polish research group has been established in 2016, which has set the goal of finding the remains of that place. One of the sources that will be helpful in this intention is ceramics. This article presents the status of research on ceramics from the emirate Nekor, indicating a possible Slavic inspiration in ornamentation of handmade wares. The main collection of artifacts were obtained during excavation of the Nekor capital; the results of studies from other sites in the area of the emirate are presented. Analysis of ceramics clearly indicates that emirate had strong ties in the early Middle Ages Andalusia. The problem, however, is the lack of absolute dates for the pottery collections.
Wojciech Filipowiak Ph.D., Karolina Kokora M.Sc.

Numerical modelling of the phenomenon of brittle cracking in glass in timber-glass composite beams
The paper presents results of numerical studies on modelling of brittle failure (cracking) of glass web in hybrid timber-glass beams. The influence of element geometry, element size and value of fracture energy on the structural performance were analyzed. Final numerical models were validated by comparing their results with the results of experimental studies
Marcin Kozłowski Ph.D. Eng.

The importance of art in the public space of the city on the basis of selected examples of ceramic objects in Wrocław
Public space is the zone in the city, where each of us have access. Thanks to its openness and universality is a place created for different forms of presentation to a wide audience. In addition to the space and the objects directly connected with the performance of the role and function, important elements here are pieces of art whose existence is important and necessary. The role of art objects in urban space is complex and multidimensional. The aesthetic of forms is not sufficient for the viewer, who needing to interact with the art and wants to contribute, or at least to touch and try it out. Art object is a method for identifying the urban space, as well as a record of important events for the city, the possibility of transmission of educational value. Public space is the area of contact of the artist with the recipient, providing a broad spectrum of activity. We need art in the city.
Paula Pater M.Sc. Arch.

III 2017

Coating synthetic materials with zinc oxide nanoparticles acting as a UV filter (full article PDF)
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of physical filters that effectively absorb ultraviolet light in the UV-A range. ZnO produced at the Laboratory of Nanostructures was characterised by nanometric particle size of 28±4 nm (SSA BET). By coating the surface of a transparent film of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with ZnO nanoparticles, the authors aimed at obtaining a coating that absorbs UV-A radiation. The coating process took place in a water suspension of ZnO, in which the phenomenon of acoustic cavitation was triggered, where the implosion of cavitation bubbles led to deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on the PET film surface. As part of the work, optimum parameters of the PET film coating process were developed, thus obtaining a filter in the form of a ZnO coating that effectively absorbs UV light.
Bartosz Woźniak Eng.

Loss-shaping of ceramic products containing thin walls (less than 1 mm) using a CNC machine tool.
The machining of raw or burned ceramics elements is frequently used operation in conventional technical ceramics. The article presents the results of work carried out in order to provide information about the capabilities of a CNC machining when making short series of thin-walled components. Research has been conducted on the most popular ceramic materials such as alumina and steatite. Shape used in the process had similar structure to a honeycomb with longitudinal channels and less than 1 mm thick walls.
Andrzej Łosiewicz M.Sc. Eng

Low-temperature degradation of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics. Part I: Microscopic observations and phase analysis
The subject of the study was the phenomenon of low-temperature degradation (LTD) of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics. It has crucial impact on functionality and stability of zirconia elements. The aim of this work was to investigate the initial stages of LTD process of zirconia ceramics by means of phase analysis XRD and SEM microscopic observations. Phase analysis conducted by X-ray diffraction method showed that the content of monoclinic phase in samples after aging increased. The content of the monoclinic ZrO2 phase in aged samples was proportional to the aging time. XRD results have been confirmed by SEM image analysis.
Paulina Tymowicz- Grzyba M.Sc.

The optimization of the annealing process of hand formed glass in electric annealing furnace
Conducting of the glass annealing process is not an easy one in a situation when in a factory artefacts of different shapes and sizes are produced, from blown and from thick glass, in short series. This kind of production requires the optimization of annealing process because the artefacts from thick glass – glass animals, flowers, paperweights can be distorted due to too high upper annealing temperature. Excessively low upper annealing temperature, by contrast, precludes the release of interior stresses. The paper presents the results of interior stresses tests conducted for several representative artefacts produced in Kraków Division of Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials and shows how they influenced the conducting of the glass annealing process.
Magdalena Woźniak M.Sc. Eng.

II 2017

Mosaics guarding the past – commemoration of the battle of Cedynia
1972 was the thousandth anniversary of the battle of Cedynia. The authorities decided to use as information Mieszko's First victory over the German Army of the Margrave Hodo. They decided to create three big mosaics at Cedynia which were built as permanent reminder of the anniversary. Two of them depicted the Battle and the third depicted Cedynia's Coat Of Arms and proto- Slavic vessels. Today they are considered as interesting works of art and a valuable decoration of the area.
Bożena Kostuch Ph.D.

Modern glass artefacts from “Shakespeare Theatre” site on Podwale street in Gdańsk
We present glassware from the site of “Shakespeare Theatre” on Podwale Street in Gdańsk. Among the monuments found there are imported products and from the native glassworks, probably from the circle Kartusko- Kościerski. For imports we have categorized wine-cups type Römer, a dekorative glass Stangenglas, Kuttrolf bottle and a wine-glass in the Venetian style. Other products except for typically Polish bell beaker could be both products of Polish factories and brought in from European markets objects. The majority of the collection dates from about the seventeenth and eighteenth century.
Małgorzata Markiewicz Ph.D

Glasses for nuclear waste immobilization
Radioactive waste vitrification is a one of the most effective method of its immobilization. It is based on the incorporation of the waste constituents into the structure of chemically durable glasses. It is one of the few methods which can bind radioactive elements and prevent their spread over a very long period of time. For this purpose a borosilicate or phosphate glasses are used. The paper presents the division, the sources of origin and the basis for radioactive waste management, as well as methods of its immobilization. A review of currently used glasses to the vitrifi cation and the rules applied in the design of their composition is presented.
Paweł Stoch Ph.D. Eng

Influence of temperature and humidity on the spectrophotometric properties of the coated glasses
The article discusses the characteristics and role of the coatings used in construction glazing. The conditions aging which were subjected to antirefl ection coating glass were presented. The light and energy parameters of coating glass that were not exposed to high and low temperature and humidity and coating after aging were determined. The obtained spectrophotometric characteristics of coating glass before and after aging were compared. Elemental composition of the coating surface of the glass before and after aging by scanning microscopy method was determined. The analysis of the results and assess the degree of degradation of coatings after exposure to high and low temperature and humidity was performed.
Agnieszka Marczewska M.Sc. Eng.

I 2017

Ceramic decorations in industrial space – former “Brauerei Pfeifferhof Carl Scholtz” brewery in Wroclaw (1895–1910)
The former Scholtz brewery building in Wroclaw, constructed around 1893–1895, is a example of a large industrial complex located on the outskirts of the city. The characteristic feature of this building is the spatial layout, architecture and ceramics decorations, which tend to imitate public utility buildings - schools and hospitals, as well as the aesthetics of a brick wall with colorful glazes detail, promoted by the city architect Richard Plüddemann (1885–1910). The Brewery is a typical example of an industrial facility build during the third quater of 19th century, in which the harmony of form and function also has an aesthetic dimension. The article discusses the decorations of facades of the brewery in the context of new technologies in the production of fi ttings and ceramic blocks, as well as presents a selection of templates for brick details between 1864–1900. The aspect of documentation and functioning of the “aesthetics of industry boulding” in the cultural environment, has also been discused.
Ewa Łukaszewicz-Jędrzejewska Ph.D.

Thermovisual estimation of the time necessary for drying the two outer layers of a ceramic casting die
The paper evaluates the drying time of two layers (model and constructional) of ceramic casting dies. The slurries were prepared using the aluminum oxide and a colloidal silica-based water binder. The constituents were examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), their particle size was determined in a LA-950 analyzer. Then, they were mixed in a mechanical mixer and the properties of the mixtures, such as the temperature, pH, as well as relative and dynamic viscosity were monitored using a thermo-visual camera during five consecutive days. After reaching the ambient temperature, the dies appeared to be fully dehydrated.
Mateusz Konrad Koralnik M.Sc

Porcelain Garden. Flora in the European Ceramics from the 18th to the 20th Century
The homeland of porcelain is China, where it was produced in the times of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.–220 A.D.) and improved during the reign of the Tang Dynasty (618–906) and the Song Dynasty (960–1279). In Europe, porcelain appeared only after centuries. The fi rst news came with Marco Polo’s account of his trip to China. In the 16th century objects exported by the Portuguese and the Dutch appeared. They aroused delight among the collectors and provided inspiration. From the 15th century work aimed at inventing European porcelain was undertaken. The success came with the foundation of the Royal porcelain factory in Meissen in 1710, and subsequently with quite a number of manufactories in Vienna, Berlin, Nymphenburg, Ludwigsburg, Sevres and Polish factories in Korzec and Baranówka. Decoration of the early products imitated Chinese and Japanese porcelain, and one of the popular motifs – painted with ceramic enamels – were floral forms, including flowers having symbolic meaning in Oriental art. The article presents the historical development of the forms and types of fl oral motifs used in the decoration of ceramic products. It discusses various sources of inspiration evoked by floristic motifs, and the changing style of decoration, which corresponded to the current artistic styles (from rococo to art deco).
Łukasz Grzejszczak Ph.D.

Foam glass obtained on the basis of fly ash from the combustion of biomass
The paper evaluates the possibility of foaming of fly ash resulting from the 100% of the biomass combustion, and kits containing fly ash and packaging glass cullet as well. The selected sets were subjected to the foaming process using experimentally the selected optimum temperature-time parameters. The resulting foam glass was tested for physical properties and microstructure. The study allowed to assess the foaming tendency of both the fly ash, and the material containing the glass cullet. It has been found that the packaging glass cullet and the process temperature have a signifi cant influence on the porous structure formation. The amorphic phase favors the increase in the proportion of closed pores and thus affects the important physical parameters, i.e. the density, porosity, and water absorption.
Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng.

VI 2016

Examination of selected metal oxides’ effect on the possibility of modifying the color of purple ceramic paint
Ceramic purple colour consists of Purple of Cassius inorganic pigment and properly chosen flux. The colour is widely used for decoration of porcelain both in painting technique as well as in technique of indirect screen printing (decal). The aim of the carried out tests was to settle infl uence of metal oxides’ admixtures upon possibility of obtaining various shades of purple and violet colour. The following metal oxides were being added to the ceramic purple colour on the base of its leadless fl ux, at various stages of its manufacturing: silver oxide Ag2O, chromium oxide Cr2O3, cupric oxide CuO, indium oxide In2O3, yttrium oxide Y2O3, cobaltic oxide Co3O4 and parameters of colour L*a*b* of the obtained colours were defi ned comparing to the pattern colour, without any admixtures. As the result of the carried out tests it was shown, that performing admixtures of metal oxide at different stages of purple colour’s manufacturing, various shades of purple and violet can be obtained, and during modifi cation of colour the stage of admixtures’ addition is important as well.
Anna Karaś M.Sc. Eng.

Acquiring of red glass using the Purple of Cassius
The paper presents the results of research conducted on glasses coloured with the Purple of Cassius. The synthesis of the dye was carried out based on information contained in the literature from 1917. The lead glass was selected for the survey due to the higher solubility of gold in these glasses. Molten glasses were colorless, and as a result of crystallization the red color was obtained. The intensity and hue depended on the crystallization conditions. The color of glass after crystallization was photographically registered, and spectrophotometric analysis was conducted in order to determine objectively the color changes.
Magdalena Woźniak M.Sc. Eng.

Thermal and thermomechanical properties as selection criteria of refractory materials in glass furnacess
Improving the technology of refractory materials used inmthe construction of glass furnaces associated with the desire to operational reliability of the furnaces. The quality requirements for materials used stem from the complexity of their working conditions, which are characterized by three basic impacts: the dominant infl uence corrosion, thermal stress and mechanical stress. The article presents the conclusions from the periodic review of the application and working of refractory materials in the glass industry, which specify, among others, criteria for selection of these materials. The basic properties such as: composition, density and porosity determine the thermal and thermomechanical properties of the material, among others: thermal conductivity, thermal expansion and shrinkage, refractoriness under load, creep compression under load. It shows a direct correlation of the selected properties of the temperature and mechanical stress. It indicated the importance of thermal and thermo-mechanical properties as the selection criterion and the criterion of evaluation of the materials used. It proposed to examine the work of fracture as an additional criterion which allows to determine the susceptibility of the material to propagate existing microcracks depending on the temperature.
Renata Suwak Ph.D. Eng.

The preliminary results of the production of magnetic marker proppants
Commercial proppants, apart from types of materials used for their production, are designed to fi ll and maintain open fissures in shale deposits arising during hydraulic fracturing. Proppants stabilize deposits at great depths (even 2–3 km) under presence of high pressures (up to 75 MPa). Their basic properties include high resistance to compression, right size, uniformity, sphericity, smoothness of grains and adequate specific weight. While physical properties of proppants depend on technological parameters, their mechanical strength, weight and chemical resistance are related to the quantitative and
qualitative composition of raw materials used for their production. Recent researches are focused on the production of marker proppants, which apart from properties typical for regular proppants, have additional properties allowing to better assess the degree of hydraulic fracturing. Moreover, proppants with an addition of radioisotopes and proppants active in the electro-magnetic fi eld with high conductivity or adequate magnetic properties are being considered in current literature. Proppants with magnetic properties belong to the prospectively most promising types of marker proppants however innovative production process is complex both in the terms of the selection of raw materials and parameters of each process stages. The aim of the works presented in the paper is to develop the conditions for producing magnetic marker proppants by ceramic methods, moreover to determine quality criteria and testing methods.
prof. ICiMB Cecylia Dziubak Ph.D. Eng.

V 2016

Factors affecting the quality of ceramic colour layers, laser fused on glass substrate
This paper presents the results of a research conducted within the framework of the project titled “Innovative technology of colour, laser decoration of flat glass with ceramic agents”. The tests were performed with two permanent operating lasers: fibre laser SP-100 C with the capacity of 100 W and the wavelength of 1070 nm and the fibre laser GLPM with the capacity of 10 W and the wavelength of 532 nm. Hardened glass panes were used as a substrate. The materials tested in the study were ceramic colours based on lead and lead-free fluxes. The tests demonstrated that the laser parameters (power density, layout of the test setup) influence the quality of the coloured surface. The method applied for the test was determining the roughness parameters Ra and Rz and their dependence on the chemical composition of the tested colours. The influence of the filling type (dots, cross-form, linear) on the surface quality and colour intensity has been examined. The tests proved the dependence of the thickness of the decorative layer on the laser irradiation dose, as well the dependence of the Ra roughness parameter on the configuration of the laser exposition (irradiation on the coloured layer directly and through glass). The pictures enclosed are examples of decorations done with the use of the discussed methods.
Danuta Chmielewska Ph.D. Eng.

Formation the gradient composite from the ceramic-metal system by centrifugal slip casting
Demands for new composite materials are continuously increasing, as well as quality requirements for the new composites and methods of their preparation. Currently, directions of development in the production of composite materials focus on improving the properties and inventing of new methods to produce graded composites. The main problem for the engineers designing functionally gradient composites, is to control distribution of the particles along the gradient direction. One of the method to obtain FGM ceramicmetal composite is the centrifugal slip casting. This method combines the classical slip casting with the centrifugal force. It allows the production of finished products in the shape of a hollow cylinder. This investigation was carried out for the Al2O3-Ni system. The resulting composites are characterized by microstructure with the gradient concentration of nickel particles, which has a three-zone microstructure.
Justyna Zygmuntowicz M.Sc. Eng.

Fabrication and properties of Y3Al5O12 nanopowders obtained by microwave induced solution combustion synthesis
The paper presents results of combustion method utilization for yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic powder fabrication. The combustion method is based on the high energy reaction between the metal nitrates and reducing agent. In this study, glycine and urea were used as the reducing substances. On the basis of the thermodynamic data, the temperature of the flame generated during the exothermic reaction was estimated, at above 1000°C. In this conditions YAG grains should crystallize. Combustion synthesis was performed using urea and glycine in stoichiometric quantities. After synthesis the reaction products were analyzed. Reaction with glycine lead to an amorphous product which was transformed to YAG phase after annealing at temperature of 1000°C. The obtained ceramic powder occurs in the form of agglomerates of particles having a diameter approx. 50 nm. In contrast, use of urea gives a powder which main phase is the YAG. The obtained ceramic powder is characterized by particles having a diameter of approx. 100 nm present in the form of agglomerates with internal porosity.
Magdalena Gizowska Ph.D. Eng.

Fabrication of CaF2 transparent ceramics using Hot Isostatic Pressing-HIP
Synthetic pearlescent pigments imitate the effects of brightness and iridescence that is the result of biomineralization in the animal world, exemplified by pearls, shells, fish scales, and wings of insects. These pigment, with diamond and pearl gloss, have high coating capacity, colour stability and resistance to UV light and weathering. Pigments are non-toxic, and their production meets environmental requirements. They are used for plastics decoration, preparation of pearlescent preparations, iridescent or giving high gloss metallic effect, as printing inks, cosmetics, automotive paints and ceramic paints. The most common pigments are pearlescent pigments on mica substrate with a low refraction index, having at least three layers of two materials with different refractive indices: TiO2, SnO2, Fe2O3. Interference layers are applied to the mica substrate in wet chemical process as a result of hydrolysis of appropriate salts of metals from transition groups. In calcination process, as result of thermal changes of hydroxyl compounds, the interference layers are permanently deposited on mica platelets in form of chromophoric metals oxides. Thermal resistance through appropriately selected parameters of the technological process is the criterion of applicability the synthetic pearl pigments in ceramics.
prof. ICiMB Cecylia Dziubak Ph.D. Eng.

IV 2016

Preliminary study on pastes of selected ceramic biomaterials for use in 3D printing
The aim of this work was to prepare pastes for 3D printing made of selected biomaterials and to attempt an extrusion of pastes through the nozzle with an inside diameter of 0,45 mm. For the aim of the study powders of biomaterials were selected, their particle size was measured and powders morphology was observed. Pastes with different contents of plasticizing substances made of four types of biomaterials used in bone surgery: the calcite, aragonite, hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate – ß-TCP were prepared. The method of pastes extrusion process with simultaneous measurement of the force needed to form the bands was determined using a special adapter for testing machine. Evaluation of the quality of the bands (microstructure uniformity, surface morphology of bands, capacity to form a junction between bands and the deformability) was performed by observations in the stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. Then the most suitable pastes recipes were selected. Technological details of their preparation have to be optimized for their application in selected printing device. The experience resulting from this work will be used in designing ceramic pastes systems for application in 3D printers.
Zdzisław Wiśniewski M.Sc.

Coloured glasses for small producers of art glass
The production technology of coloured glasses is known for a long time. The aforementioned glasses differ in chemical composition to such a degree, that we cannot combine them in any way, without having in mind their physical and chemical parameters. Manufacturers of coloured glasses, which are widely used commercially, do not provide compositions of the produced glasses. The project was to create an alternative and cheap coloured glasses, which allow any colour combinations, using waste material, in particular glass cullet from recycling.
Anna Kuśnierz Ph.D. Eng.

Influence of the impregnation process on the microstructure of refractory materials
The work presents the possibilities of achieving the favourable microstructural changes of refractory products resulting from the application of non-standard technological operation, during the impregantion proccess. Impregnation of aluminosilicate fi red materials with castable suspensions of alumina powder causes microstructural parameters changes, comprising of open porosity, the reduction of pore diameter distribution median and average pore diameter by 86,6% and 71,1%, respectively. The application of the impregnation process enables obtaining aluminosilicate materials with a 42% shore of pores having diameters less than 1 µm. The microstructural changes result should increase the resistance of corrosive and erosive materials to aggressive destructive factors. An area of application for the improved refractory materials have been suggested.
Tamara Pochwała M.Sc. Eng.

Fabrication of CaF2 transparent ceramics using Hot Isostatic Pressing-HIP
The paper presents the research on obtaining a transparent ceramics made from calcium fl uoride. The researchers used two types of calcium fluoride powders which were characterized by XRD (phase content), SEM (microstructure), grain size analysis and thermal analysis DTA-TG, with temperature up to 600oC in atmosphere of synthetic air, so as to defi ne a temperature of decomposition. The raw materials used were different in terms of grain size. Powder (under symbol C1) provided by Sigma-Aldrich has an average grain/agglomerate size Dv 50 at the level of 20,3 µm, whereas powder (under symbol C2) provided by ABCR has a wider range of grain/agglomerate size distribution and Dv 50 was 8,9 µm. A strong tendency to agglomeration was proved by SEM analysis. X-ray phase analysis indicated a cubic phase in case of both powders. Differences between materials were noticed during thermogravimetric analysis, where for powder provided by ABCR some contamination was observed, which was analyzed as residual carbon after synthesis. For the purpose of further research, cylindrical samples were obtained by die-pressing method from both powders and sintered in temperature range of 900–1350oC, in protective atmosphere of argon or vacuum. Additionally, the samples were densifi cated by hot isostatic pressing under pressure of 2000 bar of argon and temperature 1300oC. The results of thermal conductivity and fluoresces spectrum of raw calcium fl uoride and doped with ytterbium (2% at.) were shown in this paper. 
Krzysztof Perkowski Ph.D. Eng.

III 2016

Canopies for RAF fighter aircraf in World War II – design and influences
This paper discusses the changes in the design of canopies for British fighter aircraft in World War II. During the war, the state of the art for these aircraft types underwent a major evolution in terms of performance and armament. Somewhat underappreciated is the corresponding development of canopy designs, which proved to be a critical component in terms of pilot effectiveness and survivability. It will be shown that this development was influenced by the evolving perspective on the nature of the aerial warfare as well as improved construction methods. This resulted in not only massively improved designs at the end of the war, but also in establishing new concepts which are still in use today.
mjr USAF Timoty Justin Bronder Ph.D.

Location of glassworks on (near) Warsaw Targówek area
Location of glassworks on (near) Warsaw Targówek area Targówek (district of Warsaw since 1916) was the location of four glassworks. Their founding was a part of the process, which saw the shaping of the so called Warsaw Industrial District after the “January Uprising” (1863–1864). The owners of Warsaw chemical factory, Jan Ch. Kijewski and Adolf Scholtze, founded their glassworks in this area, during the 1870s. After 1909, another glassworks company: „Targówek”, owned by Moryc Wegmeister, existed for a short period of time. The third: „Zakłady Przemysłowe «Weneda» Szymański, Kurowski i S-ka” was founded in the 1920s, with the factory located at Radzymińska Street 138. In 1927, glass production was started at Radzymińska Street 116, which re-branded in 1930s, to „Huta i Rafineria Szkła «Targówek» Kazimierz Klimczak i S-wie”. One of the reasons for choosing such a small location for the factories, was the convenient transport conditions (expanded railway system). The four glassworks produced a decent variety of assortment, with laboratory, pharmacy and medical glass being the most common products.
Marcin Więcek M.Sc.

Magnesia refractory with zirconium oxide addition
Results of the study concerning ZrO2 as a modifying agent of magnesia refractory are presented. The aim was to develop a new MgO-ZrO2 refractory material with high thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance. In the experiments, commercially available synthetic magnesia clinker and monoclinic zirconia (baddeleyite form) were used. The effect of ceramic mass grain size distribution and the introduced amount of zirconium oxide on the properties of MgO-ZrO2 ceramics was determined. Properties of final samples such as linear shrinkage, open porosity, apparent density, cold crushing strength, gas permeability and thermal shock resistance (water cycles) were measured. For selected materials, corrosion resistance against two different corrosive agents was determined. Microstructure of obtained ceramics was also investigated by SEM. The obtained ceramics revealed: good dimensional stability (firing shrinkage less than 1%), high cold crushing strength of 50÷70 MPa, typical open porosity (14÷16%) and high values of thermal shock resistance (8-10 water cycles). The addition of zirconia was proved to enhance the corrosion resistance of ceramics.
Robert Kusiorowski Ph.D. Eng.,

Application of photopolymerization in shaping of structured ceramic tapes
Ceramic materials are widely used in almost every field of science or technology, as well as in everyday life. So versatile application of ceramic materials due to the fact that they have a number of unique physical and chemical properties allow using them in areas where polymers and metals fail. Nowadays, different shaping methods of ceramic materials with complex geometry which can be applied in optics, electronics, medicine, aerospace, etc. were developed. One of these methods is stereolithography which uses UV curable ceramic suspensions. However, the main disadvantage of this method is the high price of equipment and small size of printed elements. A much less expensive alternative which is capable to replace stereolithography in certain areas, does not require sophisticated equipment and can be used practically in every laboratory is a combination of tape casting with soft lithography. The article presents the possibility to combine these techniques in fabrication of surface-structured ceramic tapes.
Paweł Falkowski Ph.D. Eng., Agata Grzelak M. Sc. Eng.

II 2016

Carl Ferdinand von Wolfsburg and Hans Gottlieb von Bressler – Baroque Hausmalers from Wrocław
Both Karl Ferdinand von Wolfsburg and Hans Gottlieb von Bressler were porcelain decorators who worked in Wroclaw in the first half of the 18th century. Both were Ignaz Bottengruber’s students, and both were hausmaler-amateurs. Karl Ferdinand von Wolfsburg (1696–1764) was a nobleman, lawyer, who held various positions in city magistrate. Apart from his public activities, his greatest passion was decorating porcelain. His works are now kept in museums in New York, Seattle, Toronto, Vienna, Dresden, and in private collections. He was a very talented artist, but his style seems to be strongly influenced by Bottengruber works. Hans Gottlieb von Bressler (1705–1777) also belonged to the well-known in Wrocław noble family, strongly associated with the public and political city life. In spite of his big talent he abandoned his passion for the family life and work in the local government – for more than a decade he was the Supreme Burgomaster of Wroclaw. His works can be admired in museums in New York, Jacksonville, Toronto, Hamburg, Leipzig, London, Stuttgart and in private collections.
Monika Żernik M.Sc.

Non-clinker binder obtained by alkali-activation of vitrified copper slag
The article presents the results of research on a new type of non-clinker binder obtained as a result of alkaline activation of a granular copper slag. An important element of the study was determination of the maturation conditions effect (standard or accelerated) on the mechanical properties of the composites.
Justyna Kuterasińska M.Sc. Eng., prof PO Anna Król Ph.D. Eng.

Influence of barium oxide on tellurite glass properties
The aim of this work was the research on the effect of barium oxide content on tellurite glass properties of the TeO2–BaO–Na2O (TBN) and TeO2–BaO–WO3 (TBW) system. The TBW glasses are characterized by the higher density compared to the glasses of the TBN system. The optical measurements such as refractive index, transmission, and absorption coefficient have been done. On the basis of ellipsometric studies it was stated that TBW glasses are characterized by the higher value of the refractive index in comparison to TBN glasses. The transmission and absorption coefficient of glasses obtained are very high. All optical properties obtained are interesting due to their application in optoelectronic field.
Iwona Grelowska M.Sc. Eng.,

The effect of LiF and SiO2 addition on properties of zirconia ceramics – preliminary study

The main objective of the research described below was to examine whether sintering aids, such as LiF and SiO2, affect the translucency of zirconia Y-TZP materials. In the study test samples were prepared in the form of zirconium material doped with lithium fl uoride and silica, which were sintered at three different temperatures. Assessment of quality of the materials was based on the study of apparent density, fl exural strength and translucency. Analysis of the relationship between properties and microstructure of the materials was based on observations of microstructure using scanning electron microscope.

Preliminary studies have shown negative effects of lithium fl uoride and silica additives on translucency of zirconia materials. In the major part of samples, the dopants used decreased translucency and apparent density of the material compared to the undoped zirconia. In order to complete the explanation of the phenomenon observed during preliminary tests, it is necessary to verify the method of preparation of samples and carry out a detailed study of physical and microstructural properties of doped zirconia Y-TZP materials.

Zbigniew Jaegermann Ph.D. Eng.

I 2016

Investigation of the effect of malic acid addition on the glass-ionomer cement properties
Malic acid is a natural metabolite that is a part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is common in nature and is used for example, in food and pharmaceutical industry. Malic acid belongs to a group of carboxylic hydroxyacids which are also used in stomatology as additives to glass-ionomer compositions. This paper presents the results of the research on the infl uence of addition of malic acid on properties of glass-ionomer compositions, which were obtained through mixing of glass-ionomer setting liquid with glass-ionomer powder component. For the research needs, glass-ionomer setting liquid was obtained based on synthesized copolymer solution of acrylic and itaconic acid, water and selected carboxylic hydroxyacids: tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid. The evaluation of properties of obtained liquids was performed by determination of their viscosity, density and refraction index. Properties of the obtained glassionomer compositions were determined by measuring of their setting time and compressive strength. The results of the research show that addition of malic acid causes a decrease of viscosity of glass-ionomer setting liquid and an increase of setting time of glass-ionomer composition, in much higher degree than in case of addition of tartaric or citric acid, and it increases a compressive strength of cement. This information can be a basis for taking on further research on developing materials for new applications.
Monika Biernat Ph.D. Eng.

Capillary sensor with samarium doped core
The paper presents optical fiber sensor based on an optical fi ber capillary with a luminescent side ribbon. Siliceous core was doped with Sm3+ ions which ensure multi colour luminescence in visible spectrum (550-720 nm). The special fi bre construction allows to measure concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution in rage of 0.01 - 0.15% ww. The sensitivity was obtained by using combination of measurements at 564 nm and 601 nm wavelengths and it reached -275•103 %-1. The use of certain wavelengths at measurement procedure allows to obtain the increase of selectivity and sensitivity of optrode. The results allow to reach the conclusion that the designed optrode has the ability to be used for construction of compact luminescent sensors, measuring selected properties of the solutions.
Agata Baranowska

Preparation of functional ceramics with the use of radical polymerization
Advanced ceramic materials currently represent a diverse group of materials which are becoming more widely used as the basis for electronic and automotive industry, cutting tools, abrasive elements, refractory elements of high quality, materials used in nuclear industry and medicine. In order to manufacture the above mentioned items, it is necessary to use ceramic raw materials of suitable properties, nevertheless the important stage of the production is the formation of the material, that is giving the shape of the fi nal product. There are many moulding methods used in ceramic technology but the limitations such as high energy-consumption, the possibility to obtain only simple geometries, long moulding time, etc. cause that the search for new moulding methods and improvement of already existing is far from being completed. One of the intensively studied forming methods is gelcasting which connects the traditional moulding from ceramic slips with polymer chemistry. The article presents the possibilities to use the reaction of radical polymerization in fabrication of both dense and porous functional ceramics. Through applying various organic additives to the colloidal ceramic suspensions it was possible to obtain ZTA composite of high density, porous Al2O3 ceramics and highly elastic ZrO2 tapes.
Paulina Wiecińska Ph.D. Eng., Mariola Bachonko M.Sc. Eng, Oksana Ryżyk Eng.

The influence of set of raw materials compaction on heat transfer and the process of melting glass
The manufacturing technology of glass is a multi-step process comprising: preparing a set, melting, refi ning and homogenizing of the alloy and molding. In order to convert a batch of raw material into a unifi ed, clear mass, chemical and physical changes must take place. These changes are insuffi cient contact between individual grains in set of raw materials. Liquid amorphous phase appearing in the fi rst stage of melting raw mix, by combining grains with thin webs, facilitates better contact between them. The paper presents the effect of the degree of compaction of raw mix on the reaction rate and the amount of amorphous phase forming. For this purpose, a commercial batch of raw materials was compacted at three different pressures: 0,2 MPa, 15 MPa and 40 MPa, followed by annealing process at temperatures: 800°C, 1100°C and 1200°C.
Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng., Iwona Przerada Ph.D. Eng

VI 2015

Studying influence of element Gd3+ on the magneto-optic properties of the tellurite glass 
This paper presents the results of research on the tellurite oxide glasses containing Gd3+ elements addition. The evaluation of the magnetic properties of the investigated materials was based on the determination of the dominant type of magnetic order by measuring the DC magnetic susceptibility. Their magneto-optic properties were determined on the base of the Faraday effect measurements and Verdet constant calculated from the turn angle of the surface light polarization. The results of magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate the change in the nature of magnetic ordering induced by the addition of gadolinium ions. Parent glass Te2 is a typical paramagnetic. The addition of gadolinium ions to the parent glass caused the change in magnetic ordering from paramagnetic to diamagnetic. With the change in the nature of magnetic ordering magneto-optic effect is reduced. An increase amount of point defects and an increase of average volume defect sizes that was observed on the basis of PALS, and a small value of magnetic susceptibility in this case may influence such behavior of the magneto-optic effect. The obtained results can provide important advises on the development of new materials possess unique magneto-optic properties for applications in optoelectronic devices.
Edmund Golis Ph.D.

Kurt Randhahn's artistic pottery workshop in Bolesławiec – a forgotten episode from the Art Nouveau period
Kurt Randhahn, was a lecturer in the Ceramic Vocational School of Bolesławiec, and also managed an artistic pottery in this city between 1899 and 1906. What distinguished it from other works, was the elegant and exclusive assortment of products (vases, jugs, bowls, fi gurative works), decorated with drip glaze, opaque glaze, half-opaque, so-called alabaster glaze, mirrors glaze and modern paint layers. The works were created on the basis of the designs made by Berlin sculptors: Arthur Lewin-Funcke, Konstantin Stark, August Gaul and Carl Stork, as well as artists from Bolesławiec: Ernst Heinecke and Hermann Knauer. Randhahn’s ceramics was highly appraised by critics and won numerous awards, among other things: a honorary diploma on the 1st International Modern Decorative Arts Exhibition in Turin in 1902 and a silver medal on the World Exhibition in Saint Louis in the United States in 1904.
Anna Bober-Tubaj M.Sc.

Test methods for slip resistance of ceramic tiles used in Poland
The article shows how important is slip resistance parameter of ceramic tiles and presents two test methods for this parameter - using a platform with a ramp to specify the maximum inclination angle of the examined surface and determining the dynamic coeffi cient of friction.The paper presents results interpretation of ceramic tiles slip resistance using a platform with a ramp carried out in different laboratories. Based on the analysis of these methods and test results suggest that an objective method of testing slip resistance of ceramic tiles is determination of the dynamic coeffi cient of friction.
Lucyna Badura Ph.D. Eng.

The influence of ecological characteristics of energy sources on environmental burden accompanying fl oat glass manufacture
This paper presents an analysis of a potential impact of electric energy from selected primary energy sources and natural gas from various European countries on environmental burden generated by the fl oat glass production process. In case of the group of European countries taken under consideration the range of values of the cumulated Pt index was relatively wide, from 98.5 Pt/t to 134 Pt/t of glass sheets. Lower burdens were predicted for electric energy generated from renewable primary energy sources and nuclear energy. It has been shown that it is ecologically more
advantageous to satisfy energy needs of the manufacturing process with natural gas than with electric energy.
prof. UTH Ryszard Świetlik Ph. D., Artur Molik Ph.D.

V 2015

Fire resistance of vertical glazed elements  
This paper discusses main problems related to the fire resistance of vertical glazed elements – test methodology and way of classification for this type of elements. In addition, the article presents the conclusions from the tests of fi re resistance of such elements conducted in the last years by the Fire Research Department of Building Research Institute.
Bartłomiej Sędłak M.Sc. Eng., Paweł Sulik Ph.D. Eng.

Developing ceramic paints that would enable creation of multilayer coatings using the CMYK colour model
The project involved developing a series of lead-free fluxes, analysing their thermal expansion coefficient and identyfying their characteristic melting points, chemical resistance and the quality of the fired flux surface. A range of ceramic paints was developed on the basis of the selected flux and pigments. Further research involved analysing colour parameters and chemical resistance. Finally colourful patterns were printed out and assessed with regards to the quality of the surface and the obtained colours and their shades.
Barbara Synowiec M.Sc. Eng.

The renaissance of pressed glass based on the history of Ząbkowice Glassworks
The article presents the history of Ząbkowice Glassworks and the innovatory approach to glass technology presented by Eryka and Jan Drost. What had been concidered vices of pressed glass, they made it's virtues. They created pressed glass products on a massive scale never seen before in Poland. In the 70s pressed glass products – which had been considered glass of lower category – started to compete with hand cut cristals. Thanks to that innovatory approach they took pressed glass to higher level. Pressed glass product recognized both in the country and abroad are belived to have become the icons of Polish design.
Kalina Banka M.Sc.

Application of mercury porosimetry in evaluation of the infl uence of thermal shocks on changes in the texture and pore size distribution of magnesia-chrome refractory materials
The mercury porosimetry method is one of basic measuring techniques for the industry of catalysts, ceramics, active carbons and many others. There is also a wide range of possibilities of using mercury porosimetry in the research fi eld related to refractory ceramics design, production and application. The aim of the article is to present one of possible examples of solving research problems related to the determination of textural changes in magnesia-chrome materials subjected to thermal shocks. Analyses of the pore size distribution of 6 magnesiachrome materials characterised by different shock resistance were performed. The investigations were conducted on single samples subjected to 5 and 10 air thermal shocks and their results were compared to the values obtained for the original samples. It was found that in all the examined samples the median diameter of samples subjected to thermal shocks increased. At the same time changes in the pore size distribution were observed, which can be related to the materials’ resistance to thermal shocks. In the case of materials characterized by enhanced thermal shock resistance the number of 10-30 µm pores was increased, whereas in materials characterized by lower thermal shock resistance the increased number of pores was noted for the pore size of 30-90 µm. From the point of view of the quoted example, porosimetric tests should be considered very useful in the solving of research problems related to the effect of destructive factors on refractory ceramics.
Iwona Kozubek M.Sc Eng., Jacek Brzezicki M.Sc. Eng

IV 2015

Ceramic materials for dental prosthetics – color gradient zirconia blocks   
In the past years there has been an intensive development of cosmetic dentistry. The appropriate selection of artificial crown shade corresponding to the natural teeth color is one of the most important aspects of aesthetic reconstruction of dental crowns. Hence the purpose of the work described was to develop a method for manufacturing zirconia blocks characterized by gradient color change. Colored ready-topress powders in shades of A1, A2, A3 and A3.5 of VITA color scale were used and gradient test samples were formed by pressing. Their physical properties, structure, color and saturation distribution were evaluated. Overall assessment of the usefulness was performed by specialists from prosthetic company. The results of the research and experimental tests have shown that the proposed method allows to obtain zirconia blocks with a color gradient, which can simplify the currently used methods of staining and veneering of prosthetic restorations. It seems possible to replace the time-consuming and diffi cult veneering by only painting techniques. Experience gained from the study described in the present article will allow to apply this method to the other VITA color scale ready-to-press powders.
Zdzisław Wiśniewski M.Sc. Eng.

Mullite powder synthesis by solid state reaction in powder bed
The paper presents interpretation of results mullite the base composition (3Al2O3 · 2SiO2) which have been synthesized from nanometer size alumina and amorphous silicon dioxide. The results were compared to the effects of the mullite synthesis from micrometer size raw materials. Obtained at different temperatures of synthesis, sintered bodies have been analyzed under qualitative and quantitative phase composition (XRD) and microstructure (SEM). The paper presents interpretation results and determinates substrate’s grain size of raw materials dependence on the synthesis temperature.
Piotr Taźbierski M.Sc. Eng.

The impact of quality performance insulating glass units to preserve their usefull parameters
Passive construction requires the use of energy-efficient building materials. Striving to achieve high thermal insulation of buildings is reflected also in the production of insulating glass units. It is important that the glass installed in the building were of high quality because only then will be able to perform its function. The article discussed the basic functions insulating glass units, normative requirements and methods of their control. Presented quality insulating glass units and a factor in obtaining these materials good performance characteristics.
Anna Balon-Wróbel M.Sc. Eng.

Effect of heat treatment and the nature of the interlayer on the mechanical strength of laminated glass for building
The article described the types of glass and polymeric materials used for the construction of laminated glass and laminated safety glass, The paper presented comparative results of different designs of laminated glass on four point bending strength, pendulum impact and ball. The method of determining the effective thickness of laminated panes used for the calculations of mechanical strength was described.
Iwona Kozubek M.Sc Eng., Jacek Brzezicki M.Sc. Eng

III 2015

The expression of brick facades on the example of the German and Austrian architecture     
The text is about an application of bricks as a buildings' façades primary material. It is characterized for example by a style known in architecture as "Backsteinexpressionismus", occurring mainly in German-speaking territories. The article has so to decide if the brick façades are popular according to pragmatism or the historical and cultural circumstances. The examples of the design for different brick surfaces suggest that this building-material may be the primary means of expression of an architectural form.
Aleksander Serafin Ph.D. Eng.

The Grodziec Collection – analysis, conservation and restoration of three stained-glass panels from the National Museum in Wrocław.
The paper concerns three stained glass panels from the National Museum in Wroclaw, which have undergone a conservation/restoration treatment. The preliminary results of the analysis performed by means of modern analytical methods such as X-ray fl uorescence macro scanner MA-XRF, are outlined. The general conservation/restoration treatment is described, with a particular emphasis on the esthetical matter.
Marta Kamińska M.Sc.

Microwave solvothermal synthesis of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles
Co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by microwave solvothermal synthesis (MSS) technique. The nanoparticles were produced from a solution of zinc acetate and cobalt (II) acetate using ethylene glycol as a solvent. The content of Co2+ in Zn1-xCoxO was in range of 1–15% mol. The following material nanostructure properties were investigated: skeleton density, specifi c surface area (SSA), phase purity (XRD), lattice parameter, dopant content, average particle size, particle size distribution and morphology. X-ray diffraction of synthesized samples showed a single phase ZnO nanostructure without indication of alien phases. Obtained Zn1-xCoxO composed of loose spherical particles with wurtzite crystal structure and average particle size 30 nm. SEM images didn’t show impact of increase of dopant content on morphology of nanoparticles.
Jacek Wojnarowicz M.Sc.Eng.

Identification of the phenomenon of discoloration on Low-E coating of glass pane used in insulated glass units and its elimination
The article analyses different types of insulated glass units, which had been previously for some time a part of the facade of buildings. The first stage focuses on understanding the nature of the defect. There was checked infl uence of climatic conditions and physical processes (thermal bridges in IGU) on discoloration, and whether this type of defect is permanent. Comparative studies of the chemical composition of glass pieces with defect on the coating, and pieces of glass without the defects, have allowed the identifi cation of elements causing discoloration on the Low-E coating. Subsequently in the next stages of work research of various components of IGU which may contribute to the formation of discoloration were carried out. As a result components responsible for this phenomenon were identifi ed. In order to find a way to minimize or entirely eliminate discoloration effect research of different types of IGU were carried out. Depending on the IGU construction probabilities of defect occurrence were estimated.
Sławomir Pabian M.Sc Eng.

II 2015

Ornamentation selected stove tiles from Krakow as a contribution to the study of culture and society of the fifteenth and sixteenth-century city.     
This article demonstrates selected decorative motifs found on early modern stove tiles from the area of Krakow. In the present paper the different presentation were described and summarized with similar decorations on the tiles with other posts from Krakow, the Polish Kingdom, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Bohemia and Hungary. Iconographic analysis of the relief decoration of tiles indicated the prevalence and popularity of these motifs in certain areas, as well as helped to establish certain trends in the decoration furnaces at that time in Central and Eastern Europe. The results shows that Krakow and especially the royal court was a center drawing on the southern and western decorative patterns and shaped them into areas of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Renaissance costumes elements allowed increased knowledge about fashion and way of dressing in the same period.
Dominika Mazur M.Sc. Eng.

The impact of environmental factors on the mechanical properties of structural sealant
This article discusses the methodology of research the structural sealants to determine their strength properties. Presented the requirements which the masses sealing have to meet to be used in structural glazing. Also contains the results of two types of sealant and assesses the effect of the aging factor of the fundamental properties of sealants.
Anna Balon-Wróbel M.Sc Eng.

Introduction to the analysis of the ceramists lumbar spine overload, based on a literature review.
When describing the hazards associated with the work with ceramics, resarchers were focused only on the poisoning by the toxic fumes, or danger caused by being in dusty areas. Based on the literature and analyzing the way in which ceramists are working, we came to the conclusion that the another work hazard in that kind of the activity is overloading of the lower back. Pain in the lumbar spine is a result of the overloading spine stabilizers, and the intervertebral disc damage, which are caused by a big compression and shear force. These factors appear because of the poor posture during work /especially when lifting heavy objects/ as well as the persistence of a static position.
Bartosz Wysoczański M.Sc.

Identification of the phenomenon of discoloration on Low-E coating of glass pane used in insulated glass units and its elimination
Akaganeite is one of allotropic form of iron oxyhydroxide. Due to its tunnel crystalline structure, it is considered a promising material for sorption applications e.g. for heavy metal removal from water. In this work we present a relatively simple and effective processing route to form ß-FeO(OH) nanoparticles onto surface of carbon nanotubes. Such carbon tubes can be used as a modifier of filter materials for water treatment. Introduction of an active component on the surface of either polymeric or ceramic membrane enables simultaneous retention of solid particles, adsorption of heavy metal ions and provides protection against biofouling.
Justyna Tomaszewska M.Sc Eng.

I 2015

Studying influence of element Gd on voids degree of structure the tellurite glass     
Studying influence of element Gd on voids degree of structure the tellurite glass The tellurite glass such as: TeO2-P2O3-ZnOLiNbO3 as a reference glass and (TeO2-P2O3- ZnO-LiNbO3) (Gd2O3) has been studied. The positron lifetime PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) was used to analyze the structural properties of tellurite glasses. The proposed method, can identify structural defects which are diffi cult to capture by other traditional methods. The study showed the existence of two components Τ1 i Τ2. The basis of the two-state model parameters were calculated capture of positrons, which allow you to draw conclusions about the nature and degree of defect studied tellurite glasses.
prof. AJD Jacek Filipecki Ph.D. Eng.

Ceramics overcoming brittleness: elementary notions
Relations between the rate of elastic energy release and stress intensity coefficients permit a unified use of the Irwin’s fracture toughness concept and the Griffi th’s energy balance-based approach based on energy balance. That this allows a simple and general description and prediction of ways of increasing fracture toughness in various types of ceramic materials (monolithic polycrystals, particulate composites, all-ceramic fibre-reinforced composites and laminates).
prof. Roman Pampuch  Ph.D. Eng.

Chinese porcelain artefacts
During many years of archaeological research in the old town of Elblag, dozens of Chinese porcelain artefacts (china porcelain) were found. They consisted of a variety of dishes, such as cups for tea and alcoholic drinks, teapots with a grooved surface (moulded “pumpkin-shaped” teapots), small dishes for jam, dessert plates, and rice bowls. The dishes were decorated with blue and white painting (under-glaze blue painting), so called Kraak- porcelain from Wanli-Period, and the dishes had floral pattern (Blue and White Flora Reserves), covered on the exterior of the bowl being decorated with Batavia brown engobe from the Kangxi-Period. There were multicolour- painted dishes (over-glazed enamels) in the pink family technique, china-imari and imari-rouge-de-fer from the Qing-Period.
Barbara Pospieszna  Ph.D.

Synthesis of wollastonite on the basis of common raw materials
Wollastonite is a mineral used in various industries. Since there is no economically important deposits of wollastonite in Central Europe, groups of experiments were performed to prepare wollastonite based on cheap natural raw materials. The solid statereaction method was selected with interval of temperature in the range of 1000-1300°C. Lacustrine chalk, limestone and calcite veins were sources of calcium, whereas glass sand and quartzite schist were used as a source of silica. Best results were obtained for lacustrine chalk and quartzite schist. Another important factor is pressing before synthesis – better results were obtained for non-pressed samples.
Arkadiusz Gąsinski Ph.D., Ryszard Sałaciński  Ph.D.

VI 2014

Painted ceramics of Hallstatt Period from Poland     
In the article the author describes the phenomenon of painting the ceramic wares that emerged in south-western Poland during Hallstatt Period (about 700-450 BC). The ceramic forms, the process of painting, decorative motifs and their meaning were presented. Considerable attention was also paid to the genesis and the process of formation the manner of painting the pottery, its penetration to the territory of Poland and its cultural and social consequences.
Dagmara Łaciak  Ph.D.

The possibility of usage mine waste TG3 clay from Turoszów in sanitary ware production
In this paper preliminary results of imputing TG3 clay, such as cheap and alternative material in sanitary ware have been presented. The main purpose was to find the highest amount of TG3 clay that is possible to replace the original raw clay material for producing ceramics parts without decreasing technological parameters, such as: viscosity, density, fi ltration etc. The maximum was reached on level 37% in all components ratio. The over dosage changes clay equilibrium in suspension and among others has infl uence on burning temperature and deformations.
Stanisław Hybner  M.Sc. Eng.

Pottery grey and black Polish-Lithuanian borderland
The article presents a short story of potteries’ development in the borderland of Poland and Lithuania. Moreover, the secrets of production of siwak in Poland, bearing in mind one of the greatest centres, Czarna Wieś Kościelna, as well as black ceramics in Lithuania. The above mentioned black ceramics are being made in the Dzukija National Park, nearby Merkine, by the Niemen river. Particular stress was put on the methods of work, tools, ways of decoration, baking techniques and also new ways of ceramics’ manufacture. The selected creators of siwak in Poland and black ceramics in Lithuania have been discussed. It is worth mentioning that the problem of national identity and ethnic and cultural affiliation of presented regions and continuation of fi ring tradition by young generation has been shown.
Jarosław Wowak  M.Sc. Eng.

Examples of the Nanoparticles Produced by Microwave Solvothermal Synthesis (MSS) Route
Microwave solvothermal synthesis (MSS) is an example of microwave assisted wet chemical synthesis process. Microwave heating enables a precise control of the reaction time, fast heating and reducing the thermal gradients. This results in a better crystallinity of the nanoparticles comparing to the precipitation process, and a narrow size distribution. An additional advantage is a reduced synthesis temperature, since no calcination is need. In the paper we presented two new reactors used for the MSS process. We have shown their applications in the synthesis of nanohydroksyapatite ZnO and ZrO2, as well as the enhanced control of their properties possible due to the use of microwaves. The MSS-1 and MSS-2 reactors enable industrial scale production of nanoparticles.
Jacek Wojnarowicz  M.Sc. Eng.

V 2014

Stress in the glass     
Heat treatment used in the manufacturing of glass is one of the basic technological processes that contribute to the formation of stress. In industrial practice, in order to carry out a proper assessment of the durability of glass products, and in the case of tempered glass and predict the degree of hardening stress distribution methods are used based on the phenomenon of photoelastic birefringence forced. These tests allow you to analyze the size, type and distribution of stresses. The paper presents the results of stress distribution and to assess the size of the economic glassware, packaging, laboratory and fl at with a different state of stress. Provides examples of the impact of various external factors (mechanical, thermal, chemical heterogeneity) on the state of stress in the glass.
Agnieszka Marczewska M.Sc. Eng., Anna Kuśnierz M.Sc. Eng.

“Mycenaean” faience beads from Kietrz in Upper Silesia
The article presents three beads, discovered in an early Lusatian culture grave in Kietrz in the Upper Silesia region and published 30 years ago as glass ones. Based on technological and stylistic features as well as comparative studies of Bronze Age beads made of vitreous materials originating from Europe and the Near East, it has been shown that these are actually artefacts made of ancient faience. They used to be adornments typical for the Eastern Mediterranean and in particular Mycenaean culture. They found their way to the Oder basin through the long distance trade on the amber route. The beads
were put to the grave as the central links of a necklace which acted as a personal adornment as well as an item bearing symbolic and magical value.
Paweł Rzeźnik   Ph.D.

Environmental assessment of proppant production technology based on LCA – compare evaluation
In this paper result of the environmental assessment of two proppant production technology is presented. Similarly as in the preparation of ceramic granules, classical technology includes as follow: milling of raw materials in a wet ball mill and spray-drying granulation. The new technology is based on low-energy wet milling of raw materials with use of drying mill and granulation in an intensive mixer. Environmental analysis was done for two technologies of granulation, based on life cycle assessment LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). Use of LCA analysis allowed to indicate different categories of environmental impact of compared technologies, including the emission of greenhouse gases and cumulative energy demand. The environmental assessment was carried out in accordance with PN-EN ISO 14044:2009, based on three methods of impact assessment: ReCiPe, IPCC, CED. Because of firing of compared granules in both cases is carried out in rotary kilns, comparative LCA analysis include technological operations of preparation of granules for firing.
prof. Stanisław Serkowski Ph.D. Eng., Jerzy Karol Ph.D. Eng.

Pride, Pottery and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Ireland
Throughout the nineteenth century it was oftentimes mentioned by British politicians or the British press that Ireland should utilize its natural resources in order to improve its condition. In the 1850s the discovery of feldspar and kaolin in County Fermanagh in the north-western part of Ireland ushered in the pottery industry on the Emerald Isle. The Belleek pottery allowed the Irish to feel proud. What is more, the clayware from Belleek found patrons in Queen Victoria and her son, who bought some specimens and, thus, popularized it in Great Britain. On the heels of the spectacular success of the Belleek came Fredrick Vodrey who not only produced excellent pottery but by employing Celtic motifs became a part of the Gaelic Revival, which helped to the Irish to bolster their national identity and mitigate the infl uence of Anglo-Saxon culture. The article shows what role the Belleek and Vodrian pottery played in Ireland in the nineteenth century when the Irish where trying to gain independence.
Paweł Hamera Ph.D.

IV 2014

Konstanty Laszczka – sculptor and ceramist  
Konstanty Laszczka was most famous as a sculptor, but he was also concerned, but first of all ceramics, which made him famous. As a child he liked to carve. His works were appreciated by wife of Jan Ostrowski, local tellurian. She helped young Konstanty to make a move to Warsaw, where he began sculpture studies. In 1899 at the invitation of painter Julian Fałat, Laszczka settled in Kraków where he became the professor at the Academy of Fine Arts. Most of his works were inspired mosty by personalities observed In his everyday life, but also by mythological and religious busts and caricatures. In ceramic works of artist there are noticeable topics referring to his childhood showing a man while working in the fields, children playing rural, rural scenes and fantastic animals. He died in 1956. In small town Dobre the school was named by the name of Konstanty Laszczka and the museum of his works was founded there.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.


Fly ash, resulting from the combustion of biomass, alternative to natural feldspars
The study evaluated the possibility of using fly ash from the combustion of biomass in the production of sintered ceramic materials. Presented a qualitative evaluation of these waste materials, including the ability to apply them in a place popularly used feldspars in ceramic masses. The evaluation of the quantity of the fly ash fed to the raw material was done in the context of the ability to fulfi ll the quality requirements of the industry. The study was based on the microstructural analysis, the measurement of the apparent density, open porosity and water absorption.
Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng., Ilona Lisiecka M.Sc. Eng.


Folk and Artistic Industry Cooperative "Kwiatogal" – beginings, production and style
The article covers the topic of a fairly forgotten Folk and Artistic Industry Cooperative "Kwiatogal". The cooperative was established in 1950 in Warsaw and initially it specialized in artificial flowers production. In 1951 it opened porcelain paint shop and this part of its activity – hand painted porcelain – is the main subject of this article. The author explains the style of the Kwiatogal's pieces of porcelain, the approval process for new designs and the diffi culties the painters faced at decorating porcelain sets. The author also tries to characterize the designs created at Kwiatogal's paint shop giving the highest value to geometric and fi gurative designs falling into the global design trend called "New Look". She also mentions the names of ceramic artists: Danuta Duszniak and Stanisław Tworzydło exercising artistic supervision over the cooperative's production.
Anna Wiszniewska Ph.D.


High temperature resistant ceramic crucibles for transparent ceramics fabrication
In the presented paper fabrication method of ceramic crucibles for special application (sintering of advanced ceramics) is presented. Crucibles were moulded in plaster moulds from ceramic slips. Suspensions of ceramic particles, used for moulding, were characterized in terms of their rheological properties. These properties were quantifi ed by means of Bingham model (in plastic region) and Power law parameters (in shear rate region, where viscous response for applied shear appeared).
Magdalena Gizowska Ph.D. Eng.

III 2014

The light and dark sides of energy efficiency of glass facades
The article presents a short characteristics of the factors infl uencing the energy effi ciency and thermal characteristics of glass facades used in Poland. Since the type of glass used in facades signifi cantly affects their energy efficiency, a characteristics of solar-active glass which is capable of changing its optical properties is also provided. Furthermore, the article includes information on complex calculations of the thermal balance taking into consideration the solar power generated owing to the application of modern technologies of active glazing of large areas.
Irena Ickiewicz Ph.D. Eng.


Clay in Armenian architecture
The article is based on own research through excavations and on data from the literature, and describes the use of clay in Armenian architecture from ancient times up until now. Clay (raw and baked) usage in architecture is diverse. Clay fireplaces, ritual vessels, altars, and fireplace housings, often adorned with zoomorphic elements, can be commonly found throughout the whole history of Armenian architecture. Issues related to the use of clay in interior design, courtyards of buildings, and as decorative art in public space are discussed.
Lilit Ter-Minasyan M.Sc.


Life Cycle Assessment of Float Glass
Life cycle assessment of float glass for building engineering was carried out using the Eco-indicator 99 method in the range “from cradle to gate”. It has been shown that the highest loads are connected with the resources category, whereas those connected with the human health category are nearly two times lower. Environmental hazards resulting from glass manufacture are to a relatively small extent connected with the ecosystem quality category. Fuels, particularly natural gas, are primarily a source of burdens. Among the mineral raw materials examined it is primarily soda determines the level of environmental hazard.
prof. UTH Ryszard Świetlik Ph.D. Eng.


The technological properties of SiC based slurries for manufacturing of ceramic shell moulds for aerospace industry
In the present paper technological properties of silicon carbide slurries in manufacturing shell moulds for investment casting of aircraft turbine elements were studied. Ceramic SiC slurries with a solid concentration of 65 wt. % were applied. As a structural binder polymer nanocomposite containing nano Al2O3 was used. The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) 47-88 with molecular weight 47000 g/mol and hydrolysis degree 88%, used as a modifi cation binder was added at different amount: 6, 10, 15 wt. %. Characterization of SiC powder was made by: grain size by laser diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The properties of ceramic slurries such as: relative and dynamic viscosity, density, pH, plate (plate weight test) and wax adhesion were studied by a range of techniques. These measurements were taken in laboratory conditions by 96 hours at temperature 21oC.The results shows that slurries based on SiC, nanocomposite binder and PVAL meet the investment casting requirements of aircraft turbine parts and had promising properties.
Paweł Wiśniewski Ph.D. Eng.

II 2014

The Maya Ceramics of the Classic Period Pictorial Themes and Functions
In the article the Maya ceramics of the Classic period (approximately A.D 250-900) are described. During this time, the craftsmen of that people created some of the most interesting examples of ceramic crafts in pre-Columbian America. The article discusses the issues associated with the production of vessels and their decorating. Considerable attention was also paid to the scenes painted on vessels where many themes concerning Mayan society and beliefs are shown. Also described is the use of ceramic vessels that served both in everyday life and as the grave goods.
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.


Competitiveness of European ceramics industry and energy costs
The ceramics industry belongs to energy intensive industries, one third of production costs are costs of energy. The differences between energy prices in EU and USA, China and Japan were shown and their strong infl uence on competitiveness was stressed. The main targets of EU policies to achive industrial competitiveness and energy effi ciency has been presented. One the base of “Energy prices and costs report” prepared by EC the prices for energy in brick and roof tiles and wall and floor tiles sectors in Europe were compared. The main issues of Cerame Unie statement on 2030 climate and energy package were described.
Jerzy Czechowski Ph.D. Eng


Method of lowering the sintering temperature of the alumina materials containing more than 90% Al2O3
The paper describes work carried out at the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials on lowering the sintering temperature alumina material containing 93 wt% Al2O3, used for the production of ceramic grinding media and wear resistant linings used in ball mills and transmission lines of pneumatic transport systems. The way of conducting work on developing, fixing and testing the sintering temperature properties of the ceramic materials were presented. Obtained properties were compared to samples made of referenced material Al93.
Tadeusz Jakubiuk M.Sc. Eng.

Naliboki and Urzecze, a few words about glassworks owned by the Radziwiłłs
The article presents the history and characteristics of glassworks in Urzecze and Naliboki. Both glassworks were founded by Princess Anna Katarzyna Raddziwił (née Sanguszko). The Naliboki plant operated between 1722 and 1864, and the Urzecze one between 1737 and 1846. Such a long period of activity evidences a proper governance, despite the difficult political situation. The plants were well known from their skilled workers brought from Dresden. The owners paid attention to high quality of products The glass items produced in the Radziwiłłs’ glassworks were known from their artistic values and modern technology. It is important to remember that the large amount of the production was used for owners’ own needs. White and crystal glass was the most popular but the stained glass items were also produced. Glass products were often handed out as gifts but they were also sold with a profit. Products were decorated with Radziwills’ coats of arms and other friendly families symbols too. There were even a series with the monogram of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland. Various themes, such as plant motives, flowers, animals and even fi gural scenes were used as a decoration. Items where glass was cut into various patterns were the most appreciated ones.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.

I 2014

Conservation and restoration of the fountain with the figure shown against the background of a mirror in the Hermann Fränkel residential villa in Prudnik
The article shows the process and results of conservation and restoration works on an early 20th century fountain in the Hermann Fränkel residential villa in Prudnik, Kosciuszki 1A Street. The object consists of a woman bending while pouring water from a shell onto a mosaic of glass, surrounded by glass with brass framing. The fi gure is shown against the background of a round, chamfered mirror. Within the mirror are a number of brass profi les, the construction of which resembles that used in stained glass. The entire structure consists of a number of materials including glass, gilded glass mosaic, brass, marble, metal plate as well as layers of paint.This variety of materials was challenging and needed technological study and trial, involving the most recent, as well as innovatory, conservation and restoration techniques.
Michał Matuszczyk Ph.D, Marta Sienkiewicz Ph.D., Piotr Romiński M.Sc.


Maiolica from Nieborów and the discussion on „national art”
The maiolica manufactory in Nieborów was established by prince Michał Piotr Radziwiłł in 1881. Its director was Stanisław Thiele, who had worked in Nevers, France and in Ćmielów. Maiolica from Nieborów reflects the style popular in Europe at that time. It is eclectical, has the forms similar to French or Italian wares. Warsaw journals got involved in heated debates about the style of Nieborów maiolicas. They were criticised for their „Old German” forms and „garish decoration”, it was suggested that inspiration should be drawn from Polish folk pottery. Today, however, the maiolica from Nieborów is seen as one of the most interesting examples of European historicist pottery.
Bożena Kostuch

Sol-gel derived thin films based on SiO2
Thin film SiO2 (Tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS) based coatings with or without organic additives (1,2-Propylene glycol, Poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-blockpoly (ethylene glycol) and doped with metal acetyloacetonates from a group of (Zr, Ti, Sn, Ce, W, Mo, Co) in solutions with organic solvents, and/or MgF2, were obtained on glass by dipping or spray mode. The coatings were examined by GID-XRD, SEM/EDS and UV/VIS/NIR spectroscopy methods and revealed morphology strongly dependent on the composition of zols and heat treatment procedures. The coatings with spectrophotometric parameters similar or better than those of commercial fi lter glasses for digital cameras were obtained.
Tadeusz Jakubiuk M.Sc. Eng.

Mechanical properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) submitted to Hot Isostatic Pressing and pressureless sintering process – comparative analysis

In the presented paper mechanical properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) material were studied. Silicon nitride samples were obtained from commercially available powder. Two paths of ceramic manufacturing were applied to obtain fully densifi ed bodies. All of the samples were sintered in nitrogen in atmospheric pressure. Part of the samples were additionally subjected to Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). Apparent density, bending strength, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured for the two set of samples, which differed in preparation path. The results were analyzed in order to estimate the infl uence of pressure assisted post-sintering (HIP process) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon nitride material.

Artur Oziębło Ph.D. Eng.

VI 2013

Glass facades in energy-saving buildings
Changes in regulations and fashion for energy efficiency forces on modern building development of new materials and technology. Facades of buildings, which until recently have mainly representative functions, have to adapt to this trend. The purpose of this article is to review modern glazing facades systems of buildings. The requirements which must be fulfilled by glass facades to be considered for low energy were presented. There are also presented capabilities of obtaining solar energy in modern facades and windows.
Małgorzata Fedorczak-Cisak Ph.D Eng., Alicja Kowalska-Koczwara Ph.D. Eng.

Design methods of building glass
The paper presents design rules of the glass structures. The article summarizes the most popular design methods and describes a calculation method based on the draft European standards. The article contains the author's comments on the practical aspects of the design.
Artur Piekarczuk Ph.D. Eng.

Yttrium (III) oxide application for manufacturing prime coat of ceramic shell moulds used in investment casting
This work present the rheological properties of ceramic slurries based on yttrium oxide powders with two different granulation (200 mesh and 325 mesh) added in a ratio of 35%÷65% by weight. Solid phase was 81 wt.%. To manufacture ceramic shell moulds the Evonik binder with nanoparticles of aluminium oxide was used. In addition the poli(acrylic) binder as a liquefi er was also used. Y2O3 it’s a new material used to fabricate ceramic shell moulds for investment casting of turbine aircraft parts using nickel and titanium superalloys. Grain size and microstructure observation were researched for yttria. Relative and dynamic viscosities, density, pH and plate weight test of ceramic slurries were studied. The measurements were taken by 96 hours. It were proven that ceramic slurries based on yttrium (III) oxide meet the standard investment casting requirements. After tests, ceramic shell moulds for investment casting aircraft turbine parts were manufactured by Bridgman technique.
Marcin Małek M.Sc. Eng.

Paxton Vobiscum’: Joseph Paxton and the phenomenon of the Crystal Palace

The article deals with the history of the success of the Crystal Palace that was built in London as the venue of the Great Exhibition of 1851. It symbolized the might of the British Empire as well as the ingenuity of its author, a gardener, Joseph Paxton (1803-1865). The erection of such an impressive building was possible thanks to the outcomes of the Industrial Revolution and Paxton’s experiments with the use of glass and steel. Being initially a source of disputes and anxiety, the Crystal Palace became a major attraction of the Great Exhibition. In addition, it allowed Paxton to go down in history as one of the best architects of the Victorian period.

Paweł Hamera Ph.D.

V 2013

Pueblo Indians from Utah and Colorado – Ancients architects and potters
The Mesa Verde region, located in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, is well known to archaeologists and many tourists because of its beautiful landscape and famous cliff dwellings in the alcoves of the sandstone canyons. These ancient villages were constructed an inhabited during the XIII century A.D. by Pueblo culture. This region was one area where ancient Puebloans developed their culture to a great extent. Today, visible traces of it are well preserved architecture in canyons’ alcoves and niches as well as artifacts, and especially black-on-white pottery. Since 2011 study of the settlement model and socio-cultural changes that took place in Pueblo culture as well as documentation of material culture, mainly pottery is realized by Sand Canyon- Castle Rock Community Archaeological Project, first Polish archaeological project in USA, conducted in the Mesa Verde region, southwestern Colorado.
Radosław Palonka Ph.D.

Synthesis and properties of ecological composites sintered
The subject of research presented in this paper was to try to carry slag from the glass fiber in the composite sintered solid at selected temperature-time parameters. The study used slag derived from the processes of solid waste incineration and a mixture of E and C -glass fi ber. The resulting composites were subjected to microstructural analysis and identification were selected physical properties such as apparent density, open porosity, absorption, and also resistance to ions leaching in a water environment was studied using the method of specimens boiling in distilled water during 60 minutes followed by measurement of water pH. Abrasion resistance was also assessed via friction of the surface by a freely rotating ball during 60 minutes (Calotester).
Ilona Łęgowik M.Sc. Eng., Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng.

Synthesis and properties of inorganic pigments based on titanate pyrochlore compounds
New ceramic pigments based on pyrochlore structure Y2Ti1-xMnxO7 (x=0,01-0,1 M) were developed employing solid-state reaction synthesis at high temperature 1400°C. The goal was to determine the infl uence of concentration of chromophore (Mn) and type of mineralizers on the colouring effects of these compounds. The selected pigments were applied into ceramic transparent and opacity glazes as well as into gres mass. Glazes and mass were burned at 1200°C. The results indicated that these pigments can provide red-orange hues and that these compounds are stable in opacity glaze and gres mass.
Natalia Mietła Eng., Agnieszka Gubernat Ph.D. Eng.

Outline of the history of stained glass art in Poland

The article presents history of glass art from the beginning of Polish state until present moment describing the most important examples highlighting periods of the greatest development of this craft i.e. Middle Ages and Art Nouveau. The outline contains history of stained glass from the first pieces of stained glass found in Kalisz on which small painted and scratched ornaments were discovered. The composition of used glass is known by chemical analysis what gives us knowledge of contemporary technology. The author discuss also medieval examples of stained glass from Kraków, Toruń, Włocławek and Chełmno. In Modern Times stained glass art lost its importance and is used rarely replaced by other decorative motifs.

Karolina Wolska M.Sc.

IV 2013

Physical – chemical analyses of the wall tiles from Herbst Palace in Łodź for the purpose of their reconstruction
The wall ceramic tiles manufactured by Villeroy & Boch plants from the turn of nineteenth / twentieth century have been studied. The walls of the bathroom in the Herbst Palace being currently a room of the Museum of Art were covered by them. The macroscopic, microscopic and physical – chemical analyses (XRD, ICP-OES) of the body and glazes were made. The results of those analyses were used to reconstruct of the tiles with the same colour which had been used to conservation and restoration of the historic bathroom.
prof. ASP Henryk Stoksik Ph.D. Eng.

The Ceramics of the Nasca Culture
In the article the author describes the ceramics of the Nasca culture which developed on the southern Peruvian coast in the period of approximately A.D. 1-700. The ceramists of this ancient Indian society created extraordinarily colorful and masterfully made vessels with the use of simple techniques. The wares were decorated with the use of multicolor slips. The ancient Nasca potters achieved in this activity mastery which wasn’t surpassed by any other culture from this area. In the article the process of vessels production and decoration was described. Scenes and images which were depicted
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.

Cadinen painters on ceramics
This article presents the history of artistic majolica and terracotta workshop, founded in 1904 in Kadyny, on the Vistula Lagoon by Wilhelm II. The author discussed the main trends in ceramic art and painting and their evolution up to the 20’ Twentieth century also made silhouettes of the greatest painters on ceramics associated with Kadyny.
Barbara Pospieszna Ph.D.

Clays from selected lignite deposits in Poland as a potential Raw material for ceramic industry

Accompanying clay raw materials from lignite mines located in Central Poland were tested as raw materials for building ceramics industry. It was concluded that mineral composition has a decisive impact on technological properties of clay rocks. Rocks containing mixture of kaolinite, smectites and quartz have the best properties for ceramic uses. Clayey rocks overlie “Adamów” lignite deposit. On the other hand, most of clayey rocks from “Szczerców” deposit showed too high shrinkage and plasticity. This property can be easily correlated with very high content of smectites. Only few samples from “Szczerców” deposit have good ceramic properties, but unfortunately contain too many larger grains of carbonates, which makes them impossible to use in building ceramics industry.

Arkadiusz Gąsiński Ph.D., Ryszard Sałaciński Ph.D., Marta Michalska

III 2013

The Ceramics of the Peruvian Moche Culture
In the article the author briefly describes the ceramics of the ancient Moche culture which developed on the northern Peruvian coast in the period of approximately A.D. 100-850. The Moche artisans created one of the most original and outstanding pieces of ceramic art in ancient South America. The author describes the process of ceramic production from claypreparation, through slip painting, to firing. The scenes depicted on the pottery are also discussed.
Marek Łasisz M.Sc.

Transparent ceramics, new materials for optic and optoelectronics
In the paper the conditions for obtaining transparent ceramics and the method of doping oxide based ceramics are described. The optical classifi cation dividing transparence ceramics in to optically active and passive is presented. Prospects for transparent ceramic applications in the laser nuclear fusion, are suggested. The technology of the manufacturing transparent ceramics, developed in the Nanoceramics Department, is disclosure in details.
prof. ICiMB, Adam Witek M.Sc.

Karol Tichy as the creator of the Ceramics Workshop at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw
Article presents the history and development of the ceramics studio, which was led by Karol Tichy from 1924 until the outbreak of war in 1939. The artist was associated with the Academy since its inception, promoted the teaching of Decorative Art, and therefore the creation of pottery workshop was a turning point in his teaching career and his own work. The workshop was primarily educational in nature and science in a relationship, and then experimented with the form, types of glazes and decorations. Karol Tichy’s extraordinary enthusiasm and putting more and more tasks made achievement to a very high level of work possible and done. Undoubtedly, Academy of Fine Arts Ceramics Workshop led by Tichy has developed the most outstanding Polish postwar potters, among them were such artists as: Julia Kotarbińska, Rudolf Krzywiec, Stanislaw Ptaszyński, Wanda Golakowska.
Karolina Wolska M.Sc.

Clays from selected lignite deposits in Poland as a potential Raw material for ceramic industry

The requirements for new and less expensive raw materials and components is connected with the continuous development in building technologies. The perlite is one of the most promising raw material which have potential to be widely applicable in obtaining the new products for building industry. Additionally, as a secondary product of the perlite expansion process the fraction of expanded perlite with very small grain size < 0,1mm, is produced as a waste material. The Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials – Division of Glass Building Materials has undertaken research work on technology of the new products, especially light weight glass-ceramic aggregates for building industry use, prepared on a base of raw perlite and waste fraction of the expanded perlite.

Elżbieta Żelazowska Ph.D Eng., Paweł Pichniarczyk Ph.D. Eng., Sebastian Sacha M.Sc., Józef Zawiła M.Sc. Eng.,
Joanna Rybicka-Łada M.Sc. Eng.

II 2013

Hydrothermal synthesis of nano zinc oxide with selected precipitating substance application
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the substance precipitating on the morphology, particle size nano zinc oxide derived hydrothermal method in a microwave reactor. Was used as the precipitating substances: potassium hydroxide, urea, ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA). Conducted experiments have shown a significant effect on the properties of the resultant product is the selection of suitable precipitants. However, there were different grain shape, size and surface area. The results presented in this article is a continuation of work on the selection of the optimal reactor for hydrothermal synthesis of nano zinc oxide. Posted by results presented in his doctoral thesis.
Tomasz Strachowski Ph.D Eng.

Gas bubbles in the glass
The appearance of gas bubbles in the glass is a permanent phenomenon accompanying the melting of the glass. The removal of gas bubbles (clarification of the glass) and preventing their formation is one of the most difficult stages of the production of technical and commercial glass. The paper includes examples of chemical composition of gas bubbles in the glass occurring during the breakdown in the national factory, which are representative of the results from the expertise developed for glass in 1999–2005 and performed in the Department of Glass Technology Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Krakow.
Anna Kuśmierz M.Sc. Eng.

Immobilization of solid waste materials sintered
The study included waste materials in the form of slag, cullet and fiberglass. Done with a mixture of waste in the appropriate proportions set of raw materials, and subjected to a heat treatment, a series of tests. An analysis of microstructural, determined the apparent density, open porosity and water absorption, obtained by sintering. Using the scratch test method tests were performed scratch resistance diamond cone. The research found that the increase in cullet content in the samples resulted in a large increase in the apparent density at the expense
Anna Zawada Ph.D. Eng., Ilona Łęgowik , Monika Strzelecka

Ceramic materials for dental prosthetics – optical and microstructural properties of zirconia ceramics

The aim of the work was to select the method of determine the value of translucency, a comparison of the optical characteristics of the selected zirconia materials, as well as an attempt to determine the relationships between the translucency and selected physical properties and microstructure characteristics of zirconia materials. The samples of commercial zirconia materials used in prosthetic dentistry were prepared and studied their basic physical and optical properties (apparent density, color, translucency, whiteness). Microscopic examination of pores and grain morphology was also performed, as well as translucency dependence on the physical properties and structure of zirconia ceramics was evaluated. In summary, characteristics in terms of the optical properties of the test materials were achieved and properties that, based on the research, had the greatest impact on translucency of materials were indicated.

Zbigniew Jaegermann Ph.D. Eng.

I 2013

Glass-ionomer cement and implants for use in otosurgery
In this paper glass-ionomer cement and implants for use in otosurgery, which were developed and produced at the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, were presented. Treatment of hypoacusia requires defects to be reconstructed in the ossicular chain of middle ear in the cases of pathology resulting from chronic ear inflammations, trauma or congenital malformations. The clinical studies have been performed at the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing in Kajetany. Results of these long-term studies were presented. The application of glass-ionomer materials is the best method giving excellent results with regard to the reconstruction of a damaged conducting system in the middle ear. The use of cement and implants allows the wide range of anatomical reconstructions of bone defects that are result of disease processes or surgical removal. The anatomic reconstructions allow to restore primary and optimal function of the treated tissues. Application of glass-ionomer implants enables significant reduction in operation time. The glass-ionomer cement and implants are equally useful for reconstructive surgery in children and adults.
prof. Henryk Skarżyński Ph.D. Eng., Joanna Karaś M.Sc. Eng, Tadeusz Floriańczyk Ph.D. Eng.

Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc-aluminum spinel
In this paper results of hydrothermal synthesis of zinc-aluminum spinel ZnAl2O4 were presented and discussed. Reactions were carried out in a microwave reactor ERTEC. The influence of process parameters (pressure, temperature and time) on the properties of obtained spinel powder were examined. Properly selected process parameters enabled a spinel particle size below 10 nm. Results described in the article were presented in author’s PhD thesis.
Tomasz Strachowski Ph.D. Eng.

Mechanochemistry methods in glass sealant synthesis
Mechanical activated barium silicate glasses were studied as a potential sealant for joining of different materials. Influence of glass batch mechanical activation on glass synthesis process was determined. Thermal properties and structure of BaO – SiO2 – MgO – ZnO system glasses containing less than 40% mas of SiO2 as the network forming component were studied. Mechanical activation on the thermal properties were investigated. Melting progress were tested using high temperature microscopy. Mechanical activation causes a decrease of the melting temperature and increase crystallization tendency of the investigated materials. The prospective glasses are indicated for sealant applications.
Małgorzata Ciecińska Ph.D. Eng. , Paweł Stoch Ph.D Eng.

Glasses with energy – saving low-emissive and solar control low-emissive coatings

Coating of the glass surface with thin films of metals and metal compounds such metal oxides and the others is a very effective way to obtain the new properties of the glass without necessity to modify the bulk glass composition. The thin film coated glass is commonly used in buildings with aim to enhance the user’s comfort and energy saving. The coatings of metal compounds on glass may be obtained both “on-line” during the forming process and „off-line”, but In that case the glass sheets needs to be carefully cleaned before coating process. Thin films of metals for low emissive glasses needs to be coated „off-line” in the vacuum conditions. The method commonly used in commercial production of energy saving low-emissive (Low-E) glasses is magnetron sputtering. In this paper there some basic information on the properties and coating methods used in glass industry for producing the Low-E and Solar-Low-E glasses have been presented.

Elżbieta Żelazowska Ph.D. Eng., Paweł Pichniarczyk Ph.D. Eng.
Glass-ionomer cement and implants for use in otosurgery
The paper concerns the fabrication of inorganic silicate and borosilicate glasses based on the chemical compositions of the industrial glasses. The examinated glasses were coloured on the green and blue by doped of chosen transition metal compounds: CoO and K2Cr2O7. Optical characteristics of colured glasses were used to determine influence of the colouring ions on the transmission and absorption spectra. This paper presents the most often used methods to define graphical and numerical characteristics of coloured glasses based on colour spaces: CIE XYZ and CIE Lab.
Agnieszka Terczyńska-Madej M.Sc. Eng, Marek Myszkowski Eng., Dominik Bysiek Eng., Katarzyna Cholewa-Kowalska Ph.D. Eng.,
prof. Maria Łączka Ph.D. Eng.